Rabu, 31 Juli 2013

The mystery of the disappearance of Mountain Meratus Kalimantan Captain Muller

FROM : kecoeboeng IN MERATUS

The mystery of the disappearance of Mountain Meratus Kalimantan Captain Muller



In Borneo there are mountains that stretch from the west to the eastern part of this island. Mountain is not too high, but we can imagine the area and length as three provincial stretches through South and Central Kalimantan and East. Growing mountains lining the pathway is referred to as Mount Meratus.

There is NO clear definite picture of how long and many of the mountain. As depicted while largely expected only speculative uncertain - both about the number and size mountain in length. The book "In Inner Borneo" by AW Nieuwenhuis in 1894 was not even a mention of it.

Known, A.W. Nieuwenhuis Dutch citizen who is also a physician as ethnographer and anthropologist, supported by the Maatschappij ter Bevondering Van Het Natuurkundig Onderzoek der Nederlandsche Kolonien (Association to advance research in the Dutch colony) - formed three teams of experts knowledge mapping, trenching Suber nature, research on rural residents, as well as flora and fauna. The team traveled from West Kalimantan along the Kapuas River to the head of the Mahakam River and ends up to Samarinda in East Kalimantan. This expedition was no explanation of the extent and length of Mount Meratus. Though they've embarked on a journey from Pontianak Kapuas River in West Kalimantan.

The trip, in addition supported by the Maatschappij ter Bevodering het van der Nederlansche Natuurkundig Onderzoe ​​Kolonien, also backed up by Resident Water Afdeeling van Borneo, located in Pontianak West Kalimantan. This was driven by the overwhelming interest in other countries that sent representatives to the island of Borneo to do research at the same time trying to do the occupation. Just as in the 18th century, when English and Dutch to violence and intimidation to the inhabitants of Borneo island. Among them, the adventure Alexander Hare in Banjarmasin in 1812, James Brooke and Robert Burns in 1848 in Sarawak which seeks to establish a kingdom for himself, James Erskine Murray enters the British people Kutai in 1844 that led to war with the camp died because the Kingdom of Kutai, then Muller 1825 and 1828 Dalton is exploring Borneo on behalf of the Netherlands.

Zei was an officer of the army of Napoleon I, named George Muller, entered the Dutch Municipal. Muller got the task of making a relationship with the Sultan Sultan in Borneo coast in 1825. Muller set out with an army consisting of Javanese people. Its primary mission, if Sultan Sultan that he came out of line, then the Sultanate will be fought and destroyed to be occupied.

However, do not let the Kutai kingdom threatening the state. As a result, there was a battle that forces George Muller shattered and scattered ran into the woods. Noted, Javanese soldiers who survived achieve the western part of Borneo are but a living one, being alone and Muller fate of the rest is unknown forces.

There is news that George Muller with his followers were killed in the area around the Kapuas Hulu November 1825, precisely in the river Bungan. But, the story is only approximate obscure the truth. To be sure, Muller was never found until now.

There is also another story about army fugitives being pursued Muller Kutai Sultanate. It is said, because losing Muller ran up to Mount Meratus and disappeared there. Muller said the kingdom is protected by supernatural forces who are in the mountains Meratus.

Stories about Mount Meratus also expressed by elderly residents of South Kalimantan Hill Tribe Called Amung Tahe. Men who have lived in the hamlet hereditary Rangit - Meratus foothills recounted his life, when venturing to explore Mount Meratus. Rangit hamlet itself is a village that can be reached from the interior Paser. But not known for sure, is included in the village or district where. But within the map area includes the area of ​​South Kalimantan.

Hill Tribe themselves to their community, they do not understand about the village where he lived is included in the area of ​​South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan or Central Kalimantan anyway. For them it is not an issue. Clearly they could have been there everywhere. For them, the forest is home and their lives.

In general, the hill tribes dwell in the wilderness around Mount Meratus both sides. It is said Amung Tahe, the mountain there did amounted to one hundred mountain. But that can be counted mountain there are only ninety-nine pieces. Then one of the mountain's highest peak is the parent and which rarely can be seen by naked eye.

From the foot of the mountain to the summit to rise up and seventeen seventeen down. According Amung Tahe, at the highest peak is an abode of Maharaja Meratus that can not be seen or unseen. Except if required by the Maharaja.

That said, at the top of the mountain peak is fairly broad plains. In the plains there is a building where the Maharaja's palace resides. Mount Meratus magical kingdom is not only itself, but there are more small kingdoms diseputarnya, which is also called the kingdom of the supernatural (Bunian).

In this mountainous region is very rich in forest products and natural. Once there was a person, when walking in creeks that are in there find the diamonds and chunks of gold on a stone wall at the edge of the river mussels.

Quote: 
People often unseen Meratus down from the mountains to the various cities, both in South Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan. Most of them disguised as hill tribe people who trade high quality agar wood and carrying chunks of amethyst and ruby ​​are still raw
. The goods they sell or barter with tobacco, salt, perfume oils, grains and even beads and pearls.

Tahe amung also told me, that the deceased father who often venturing into mountain areas Meratus, claimed to have met with the reddish-brown-haired tall dressed like Westerners (Dutch tempo doeloe_Red) escorted by several men in uniform. But when people followed the sudden disappearance is not known where.

According to the story the people who lived in this area all Meratus they also often see people dressed in Dutch with the old days walking with some people in uniform complete with guns and swords. However, if pursued, then what they see it disappear.

That said, from face and clothing as well as the signs contained in this Dutchman characteristics similar to Captain George Muller who lost it are unknown. If true, it is seen George Muller, of course, has become the supernatural. Some say that his spirit was still curious and wander along the mountain because Meratus killed. It could also be that he was killed because people were massacred by the wild in the outback who was still primitive.

Selasa, 30 Juli 2013

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (5) : Pulang Pisau Regency

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (5) : Pulang Pisau Regency

Any pictures that important relic (Age Netherlands - 1990) then located in Central Kalimantan.

Let more neat old photographs classified according to their respective regions (alphabetical order).

Pulang Pisau Regency : by albert alang Foto-foto Kalteng jaman dulu.

Church in Pulang-Pisau 1923



Mrs Rihs with the sewing club in Pangkoh. 1936




Pangkoh. year / Tahun unknow





The village church in Pangkoh Kahajan, 1923



Travelling into the interior between Kapuas and Kahajan (canal) Rev.Lampmann with his wife and children, 1925




Wedding couple and their party in Pangkoh. 1924

Respected contribution Dayak Open Line In Carstensz Pyramid

Mountain climbing is a hazardous activity that can be done by people who know and understand the purpose of a trip. Carstensz Pyramid is the highest peak of the mountain land Jayawijaya contained in Papua. This peak was first discovered by Jan Carstensz, when the voyage he saw a mountain peak covered by a white layer is a layer of snow expected. Originally opinion of Jan Carstensz not accepted by researchers and adventurers west, this is because Papua is located in the tropics is very little potential for ice formation. New in 1913 is evidenced by the words of Jan Carstensz a British Naturalist AFR Wollaston succeeded in reaching nose Carstensz Glaciers on the South side after a grueling journey through the jungle on the southern coast of Papua. He takes 92 days to reach the final 50km

      Failures continue to be experienced in achieving the top of Carstensz, finally seoarang Austrian nationality climbers H. Herrer with some colleagues managed to reach the highest peak in the Oceania region, Carstensz finally conquered. But behind the glittering success of climbing Carstensz Pyramid, only a few people know of a fact that the Dayak role as a pioneer of the very vital. Borneo's indigenous tribes are the ones who are given the gift and the gift by the creator of the clans which have strong energy and natural resistance to torture. They are also well known as a pioneer of the river, with the clothes on their backs they managed to deliver H. Herrer and his colleagues to the summit of Carstensz. The award is given for the amount of services Dayak tribe in climbing Carstensz piramind characterized by naming one of her climbing line is Dayak Pass. A pathway for the brave

Teuku Ahmad Hidayat (J 266.27 BSL)
Posted 29th April 2012 by We Know Nothing

Jumat, 26 Juli 2013

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (4) : Murung Raya Regency


Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (4) : Murung Raya Regency

Any pictures that important relic (Age Netherlands - 1990) then located in Central Kalimantan.

Let more neat old photographs classified according to their respective regions (alphabetical order).



English House of Europeans at Puruk Tjahu along the Barito river 1905 - 1914

KNIL soldiers from Puruk Tjahu in front of our rest house 1908




Puruk Tjahu 1932

The hospital in Puruk Tjahu. 1908 Rumah Sakit Puruk Cahu tahun 1908



The village of Tumbang Nangu near Puruk Tjahu. 1908




Waterfall near Puruk Tjahu 1908


A flood in Puruk Tjahu. 1908



Government building in Puruk-Tjahu 1908





Mosque in Puruk Tjahu. 1928





Puruk Tjahu 1908

Rabu, 24 Juli 2013

The story of a prostitute orangutans in Borneo jungle


Pony orangutans used as prostitutes. vice.com © 2013 Merdeka.com
- Pony orangutan dijadikan pelacur. vice.com ©2013 Merdeka.com

An old news up again because in crowded social networking site Twitter. Orangutan origin Kerengpangi region, Katingan, Central Kalimantan become depraved lust slut serving many men in that place.

Vice.com site reported this incident occurred five years ago (2007). Pony's name orangutans live in the middle of localization in Kerengpangi. She maintained by an unnamed mistress. Around the age of five years taught Pony began serving pleasure seekers.

Based on interviews with director vice.com Borneo Orangutan Rescue Organization Michelle Desilets, very sad state of current Pony rescued from prostitution. He chained, lying on a mattress, and all his fur shaved.

Pony has been trained as a prostitute. If there is a man walking toward her direct style like prostituting themselves. Pony mistress said to star in brothel. Revenue mistress was so many times and he was considered a fortune because of the concubine always wins if there is gambling toggle Pony.

The guests loved the Pony. They could have chosen a man whore, but many also have sex with the orangutans. To be comfortable all Pony fur was shaved. Pony so often bitten by mosquitoes and skin irritation and even breakouts.

Need Pony annual saving from the spot. Forest police and local authorities do not give up just like that Pony on Borneo Orangutan Rescue Organisation. Confront them with guns, knives, and even equip themselves with AK-47 assault rifle.

When Pony dispossessed of his mistress, the mistress hysterical and called animal rights activists as inhumane because it has been separated as the mother and child. "At least make me sad, there is no law in Indonesia arrange this. They still roam free without being punished for what they did," said Desilets.

Although old news but lots of new Twitter fans know. Many people said the man had been ill at all levels.

By : [Din]

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (3) : North Barito Regency

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (3) : North Barito Regency

Any pictures that important relic (Age Netherlands - 1990) then located in Central Kalimantan.

Let more neat old photographs classified according to their respective regions (alphabetical order).

North Barito Regency : by albert alang Foto-foto Kalteng jaman dulu.



Barracks in Muara Teweh 1908


Een geestenhuis, mogelijk in Moearatewe 1910-1940




Een groep Dajaks van Muaratewe en een Europeaan in de Boven Doesoenlanden Borneo

Graven van gesneuvelde militairen in Moearatewe 1900-1917




Groepsportret bij een houten Dajak beeld in Moearatewe 1910-1940











Prauwen bij een aanlegplaats voor een Dajak langhuis aan de Barito rivier omgeving Moearatewe 1900-1920


The children of this family, Muara Teweh 1932





Selasa, 23 Juli 2013

Pengelolaan Aset Daerah di Danau Sadar (Regional Asset Management in Lake Sadar)

Danau Sadar , Kabupaten Barito Selatan : Sadar lake, South Barito regency:
- Tim dari Disbudpar telah melakukan Pendataan Aset Objek Wisata Danau Sadar,
dan Arena Dayung Danau Sadar yang sebagian besarnya mengalami rusak ringan.  :
 -Team of Disbudpar have done Documenting Assets Attractions Lake Sadar,
Sadar Lake Rowing and most of which suffered minor damage.

Dengan diberlakukannya PP 41 tahun 2007 dan Peraturan Daerah Kabupaten Barito Selatan Tahun 2008 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Dinas Daerah, maka mulai 24 Pebruari 2011 pengelolaan Objek Wisata Danau Sadar yang mulanya adalah wewenang Bagian Umum Sekretariat Daerah Kab. Barito Selatan diserahkan kepada Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Kab. Barsel.

sub England
With the enactment of Regulation 41 of 2007 and the South Barito Regency Regulation of 2008 on the Organization and Administration of the Regional Office, then from 24 February 2011 management Attractions: Lake Aware that the beginning was the authority of General Secretariat of the Regional District. South Barito submitted to the Department of Culture and Tourism District. Barsel.


Danau Sadar

tribun Danau Sadar

Danau Sadar

Danau Sadar

Danau Sadar


Berikut ini adalah Daftar Aset Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Kab. Bar-Sel yang Berada di Lokasi Arena Dayung Danau Sadar :
Here is a List of Assets of Culture and Tourism District. Bar-Cells Being Aware Location Rowing Lake :

NO
NAME OF ASSETS
TOTAL
FACTS
Arena Dayung/Rowing


1.
Gazebo
6 good, 
1 Rusak.Lightly damaged
2.
Menara Jaga/Keep tower
Rusak Ringan/Lightly damaged
3.
Tribun
Rusak Ringan/Lightly damaged
4.
Ponton
5 Rusak Ringan/Lightly damaged, 1 Rusak Berat/Heavy Damage
5.
Panggung Hiburan/stage Entertainment
Rusak Ringan/Lightly damaged
6.
Rumah Jaga/guard house
2
1 Baik, 1 Rusak Berat
7.
Bebek Air/water duck boat
Rusak Berat/Heavy Damage
Objek Wisata


1.
Gazebo
Rusak Ringan/Lightly damaged
2.
WC
Baik/good
3.
Rumah Jaga/guard house
1
Rusak Ringan/Lightly damaged
4.
Ruang Loket/Counters
Rusak Ringan/Lightly damaged

Senin, 22 Juli 2013

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (2) : East Barito Regency

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (2) : East Barito Regency

Any pictures that important relic (Age Netherlands - 1990) then located in Central Kalimantan.

Let more neat old photographs classified according to their respective regions (alphabetical order).

 East Barito Regency : by albert alang Foto-foto Kalteng jaman dulu


A service in Tameang lajang 1908

The mission station Tameang lajang in Maajanlande 1908

Minggu, 21 Juli 2013

Frog without lungs

Frog without lungs, flying frogs, snails shooter "love darts" are part of the 123 new species found in Borneo jungle. The findings are part of a conservation and research project one of the oldest rainforests in the world that began in 2007.

Frog without lungs


The report released World Wild Fund for Nature (WWF) for inventing it at once a call to protect the threatened species and equatorial rain forest on Borneo, which is divided into territories Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei.

Search of new species that are part of the Heart of Borneo project that started in February 2007 and supported by WWF and the three countries that had the island. The aim is to conserve 85,000 square miles (220,000 square kilometers) of rain forest that was described by Charles Darwin as "one great luxury greenhouses made ​​by nature for herself."

Explorers have been visiting Borneo for centuries, but vast inland forest that remains to be biologically explored, said Adam Tomasek, leader of the project Heart of Borneo - WWF. Findings species including the world's longest stick insect (56.7 cm), flame-colored snake and a frog that flies can change skin color and eyes. Overall newly discovered species known as: 67 plants, 29 invertebrates, 17 fish, five frogs, three snakes and lizards and two species of birds.

Borneo has long been known as the "forest of giants" in the world of insects, including giant cockroaches measuring about 4 inches (10 cm). Scientifically Borneo jungle interior is a conservation targets and the residence of ten species of primate, more than 350 birds, 150 reptiles and amphibians and 10,000 plants that are found nowhere else in the world.

Verdict in Indonesia: Government must return ancestral lands



The indigenous peoples of Indonesia and its advocacy group, AMAN, have scored a great success: the Constitutional Court ruled that the government must recognize the land rights of forest dwellers. It may no longer class their customary forests as “state forest areas” and lease them to loggers or plantation operators.

It was a long battle for the alliance of indigenous peoples in Indonesia (AMAN). On May 16, 2013, the Indonesian state news agency quoted Justice Muhammad Alim’s ruling as follows: “Members of customary societies have the right to clear forests belonging to them and use the land to fulfill their personal and family needs. The rights of indigenous communities will not be eradicated, as long as they are protected under Article 18b of the Constitution.”

The Constitutional Court’s landmark ruling is an important step toward recognizing the rights of Indonesia’s 40 million indigenous inhabitants, who have used the forests sustainably for generations.

The ruling bars the government from opening the land to exploitation by designating indigenous land as “state forest” and granting lucrative concessions to influential companies.

The Indonesian Ministry of Forestry has recognized that the rainforest dwellers have practiced sound conservation for millennia using knowledge handed down from generation to generation. Sumarto, a spokesman for the Ministry of Forestry, told the Jakarta Globe that “the Ministry of Forestry considers indigenous peoples living in a certain area as being part of the forest itself. They cannot be separated. Custom-based societies are on the front lines of forest management.”

The environmental organization Walhi is now urging regional governments to draft bylaws to specify which areas belong to indigenous societies. This is the best possible option for protecting Indonesia’s rainforests. Walhi activist Zenzi Suhadi: “In many cases, the customary forests of the indigenous communities are better managed than protected forests owned by the government.”

Rainforest Rescue has supported its Indonesian partner organizations for years in the struggle for indigenous land rights and preservation of tropical forests.

source:

http://www.rainforest-rescue.org/achievements/5126/verdict-in-indonesia-government-must-return-ancestral-lands

http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/constitutional-court-annuls-government-ownership-of-customary-forests/

http://www.redd-monitor.org/2013/05/17/indonesias-constitutional-court-returns-customary-forests-to-indigenous-peoples/#more-13950

Jumat, 19 Juli 2013

Most Endangered Orangutan Population Found Hidden

Orangutan seen wandering Hampapak Island, in the middle of the River
by SARAWAK, KOMPAS.com ,  as many as 200 individual orangutan subspecies Pongo pygmaeus pgymaeus found in Borneo region, precisely in the area of ​​140 square kilometers, Batang Ai National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Orangutan orangutan species are known to be the most rare. Its population is now living up to 3000-4500. A total of 2,000 of whom are estimated to live in Batang Ai National Park and Sanctuary Lanjak Entimau, Malaysia.

Previously unknown population was discovered through research at the Wildlife Conservation Society last February 2013. They found 995 orangutan nests, including nests "fresh" which indicates that orangutans use these areas.

Nests can indeed indicate the existence of orangutans in a region. Previous research in Kalimantan, Indonesia, showed that orangutans are able to bend and weave twigs that can be used as a "home".

"They just bend. They can live in it and then you can view it as archaeological artifacts," says Roland Ennos from the University of Manchester in their study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences last year.

LiveScience reported on Thursday (04/11/2013), related to the discovery of this new population of orangutans, Malaysian Government plans to increase the protection of the population in the national park where it was found.

Rabu, 17 Juli 2013

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (1) : South Barito Regency

Pictures old of Central Kalimantan (1) : South Barito Regency

Any pictures that important relic (Age Netherlands - 1990) then located in Central Kalimantan.

Let more neat old photographs classified according to their respective regions (alphabetical order).

South Barito Regency : by albert alang Foto-foto Kalteng jaman dulu.

A KNIL military campment on a river in Borneo. 1890-1900

Buntok, one of the biggest villages on the Barito. 1936


Het gouvernements S.S. Selaton op de rivier Barito, Borneo. before 1917


Mengkatip  This church was dedicated on 16th March1930



On the street in Mengkatip 1923


Pelabuhan Mengkatip di sungai Barito 1924


The congregation in Mengkatip with the missionary Hamp, 1908


Borneo bull Camera Caught

by Editor : Yunanto Wiji Utomo

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com - forest conservation organization, Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia, prove the existence of a bull in the wilds Belantikan Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan. Recent evidence is a result of the presence of surveillance cameras that captured the protected fauna are active in the region nonkonservasi.

"These findings should awaken us all about the importance of protecting forest ecosystems outside the conservation area," said Eddy Santoso, Executive Director of Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia (Yayorin), Sunday (14/07/2013), of Pangkalanbun, Central Kalimantan.

Visually proving the existence of a bull Kalimantan is the first time. Previous years, the bull only known to exist of the footprints and droppings on Hulu Belantikan.

Eddy explained, it seeks to assure the presence of Borneo banteng (Bos javanicus lowi) by installing surveillance cameras (camera traps). Activities carried out during the period 2012-2013 with funding Yayorin U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services in Belantikan.

"From some of the shots captured photo images in groups or solitary bull," said Eddy. Herd of bison observed in the mineral region in the middle of a forest called politeness (salt lick). Politeness to the indigenous territories.

Among the 25 who recorded politeness, two great politeness great potential as a herd bull, ie politeness politeness salinity and sandy. "It strengthens the evidence no bull population in Hulu Belantikan Kalimantan, Lamandau district," said Imam Sapari, researchers Yayorin.

Admittedly, the findings are very preliminary and challenge scientists, researchers, and conservationists to proceed with a comprehensive review. "There is still ongoing research is needed, especially for population monitoring, well socialized to people familiar with the typical wildlife Belantikan are reserved," said M Yunus, researchers Yayorin.


Kalimantan bull caught by a camera mounted researchers Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia, in the upstream Belantikan, Lamandau, Central Kalimantan, some time ago. The findings are outside the conservation area. It is a reminder of the importance of protecting outside of protected areas. | Yayorin



Outside the protection area

According to Eddy, the key protection is the involvement of the owner of the bull Kalimantan concession license for utilization of timber forest products (IUPHHK) in the protection of endangered species and activities outside the protected conservation area.

"The next challenge, finding a combination of forest concession permits whose location is located in areas that are very important for the animals that have protected status, and need to increase cooperation, sense of responsibility, and a firm commitment to implement area management, habitat, and wildlife sustainable area of ​​operations and supporting livelihoods of local communities, "says Eddy.

Kalimantan bull findings indicate that many actually protected fauna living outside conservation areas. Previous studies indicated through traffic dispersion and wildlife such as orangutans, Sumatran tigers, and Sumatran elephants.

Hulu Belantikan region is lowland forest remaining in Central Kalimantan and is currently a limited production forest timber and mining companies. Belantikan landscape of the region began to Arut Belantikan Perai and Bukit Bukit cavity in West Kalimantan area of ​​approximately 500,000 hectares.

Belantikan has a population of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), the largest outside the conservation area. Besides orangutans, Belantikan also live in a variety of important flora and fauna, including bison Kalimantan.

Indication of bull Kalimantan orangutan obtained while researching team in 2005. They found the trail and dirt around politeness which corroborated the information about the area.

Since traces of it, is not known where the bull population Kalimantan. Amplifier is limited to information resources of local communities. Current information and distribution of animal populations that entered the red list of International Union Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as an endangered species (endangered species) is not known with certainty.

The discovery of a bull activity footprints and droppings also occurred on 20 November 2007. The research team found two bull footprint, each measuring 12 cm x 11.5 cm and 14 cm x 13 cm, around clumps of bamboo in the region of Bukit Durian, one of the tribal areas in the Village Kahingai. Expected, it was a male and female bull trail.

In 2010, the community found a young bull, was later found also a large male bison crossing the river around the village Kahingai.

Since 2010, the data Yayorin become boosters for conservation action plan for wild cow (bull) by the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation in the years 2010 to 2020 which stated Permenhut 58/Menhut-II/2011 Number.

Yayorin with its partner, Orangutan Foundation and the Natural Resources Conservation Agency of Central Kalimantan, has continued to trace the bison population in Hulu Belantikan. (Ichwan Susanto / Reuters)

Selasa, 09 Juli 2013

Dayak Dusun Deyah (Deah)

Dayak Dusun Deyah (Deah)  by Fendy Permadi

Dusun Dayak Deyah (Deah), sometimes referred to as the Dayak tribe Tabalong. Deyah Dusun Dayak is one of a group of clumps Ot Danum, which is part of the Kingdom of clumps Barito Dayak group who inhabit hamlet in the district of Mount Riut Upau, Muara UYA and Haruai located in the northern part of the district of South Kalimantan province Tabalong. Deyah Dusun Dayak population was estimated at 30,000 jiwa.Istilah "deyah" in Hamlet Deyah, means "no". This term is similar to the word "he" in the Dayak language Ngaju which also means "no". According to the story the term "deyah" first appeared as they reject Islam, by saying "deyah" which means "no". For those accepted religion "Islam" means to "Banjar", like that of several other Dayak families who took off to "Dayak" and became his Banjar Malays. Today most of the Dayak community Deyah Hamlet has embraced Christianity and others embraced Islam, but as a recognition of the Dayaks keep them maintained. Deyah Dusun Dayak communities have ethnic religion that has been practiced since the time of their ancestors, namely religion Kaharingan, the local government put in Hindu religious groups, so this religion is sometimes referred to as the Hindu religion Kaharingan. Today most of the Dayak community Deyah Hamlet has embraced Christianity, and a few others who often mingle with ethnic Banjar had converted to Islam. Dayak ethnic group nearby hamlet Deyah is Taboyan and Dayak Dayak Lawangan. They may also still associated with kinship Dayak Maanyan located in Central Kalimantan, because of the tradition, culture and language there are some districts kesamaan.Di Tabalong, Deyah Dusun Dayak customary land is divided into 2, namely: Regional Indigenous Village Ten, covering sub- Upau, Haruai, Indigenous Ara.Wilayah Star Muara UYA and Jaro including minority Dayak village Lawangan in Binjai, but the head was taken from the indigenous Dayak-majority village in the district Deyah tersebut.Adat Village Ten is a term used to refer to the rules custom binding in 10 villages located in the district Ara Stars, Haruai and Upau. 10 to the village is an integral territory of the tribe Dayak Dayak village Deyah led by a Head of Indigenous Village Ten, which includes the village Pamintan Kingdom, Damboeng Kingdom, Kaong, Upau Jaya, Pangelak, Damboeng Suring, Rumbia River, Kinarum, Saradang, Yellow flowers and Nawin. Dusun Dayak indigenous peoples Deyah today began life in some agricultural areas, such as planting some crops, including vegetables perennials. They also maintain some farm animals. Beyond these activities, at the moment there is no routine, they use forest products to meet the needs of their families. Other activities such as hunting, fishing and others. 

sub-indonesia : Suku Dayak Dusun Deyah (Deah), kadang disebut juga sebagai suku Dayak Tabalong. Suku Dayak Dusun Deyah merupakan salah satu kelompok dari Rumpun Ot Danum, yang merupakan bagian dari Rumpun Barito Raya dari kelompok Dayak Dusun yang mendiami kawasan Gunung Riut di kecamatan Upau, Muara Uya dan Haruai yang terletak di bagian utara kabupaten Tabalong provinsi Kalimantan Selatan. Populasi suku Dayak Dusun Deyah ini diperkirakan mencapai 30.000 jiwa.Istilah "deyah" dalam bahasa Dusun Deyah, berarti "tidak". Istilah ini mirip dengan kata "dia" dalam bahasa Dayak Ngaju yang juga berarti "tidak". Menurut cerita istilah "deyah" ini muncul karena dahulu mereka menolak agama Islam, dengan mengatakan "deyah" yang berarti "tidak". Bagi mereka menerima agama "Islam" berarti menjadi "Banjar", seperti yang dialami beberapa keluarga dayak lain yang melepas ke "dayak" annya dan menjadi Melayu Banjar. Saat ini sebagian besar masyarakat suku Dayak Dusun Deyah telah memeluk agama Kristen dan sebagian lain memeluk Islam, tapi pengakuan sebagai orang Dayak tetap mereka pertahankan.Masyarakat suku Dayak Dusun Deyah memiliki agama ethnic yang telah diamalkan sejak zaman nenek moyang mereka, yaitu agama Kaharingan, yang oleh pemerintah setempat dimasukkan ke dalam golongan agama Hindu, sehingga agama ini kadang disebut juga sebagai agama Hindu Kaharingan. Saat ini sebagian besar masyarakat suku Dayak Dusun Deyah telah memeluk agama Kristen, dan sebagian kecil lainnya yang sering berbaur dengan etnis Banjar telah memeluk agama Islam.Kelompok etnis terdekat suku Dayak Dusun Deyah adalah suku Dayak Taboyan dan suku Dayak Lawangan. Mereka mungkin juga masih terkait kekerabatan dengan suku Dayak Maanyan yang berada di Kalimantan Tengah, karena secara tradisi, budaya dan bahasa terdapat beberapa kesamaan.Di kabupaten Tabalong, suku Dayak Dusun Deyah terbagi menjadi 2 wilayah adat, yaitu:Wilayah Adat Kampung Sepuluh, meliputi kecamatan Upau, Haruai, Bintang Ara.Wilayah Adat Muara Uya dan Jaro termasuk di dalamnya minoritas suku Dayak Lawangan di desa Binjai, tetapi kepala adat diambil dari suku Dayak Dusun Deyah yang mayoritas di kecamatan tersebut.Adat Kampung Sepuluh adalah suatu istilah yang digunakan untuk menyebut aturan adat yang mengikat di 10 kampung yang terdapat pada kecamatan Bintang Ara, Haruai dan Upau. Ke 10 kampung tersebut merupakan satu kesatuan wilayah adat dayak dari suku Dayak Dusun Deyah yang dipimpin oleh seorang Kepala Adat Kampung Sepuluh, yang meliputi desa Pamintan Raya, Dambung Raya, Kaong, Upau Jaya, Pangelak, Dambung Suring, Sungai Rumbia, Kinarum, Saradang, Kembang Kuning dan Nawin.Masyarakat adat suku Dayak Dusun Deyah saat ini mulai hidup pada beberapa bidang pertanian, seperti menanam beberapa jenis tanaman, sayur-sayuran termasuk tanaman keras. Mereka juga memelihara beberapa hewan ternak. Di luar kegiatan tersebut, di saat tidak ada kegiatan rutin, mereka memanfaatkan hasil hutan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan keluarga mereka. Kegiatan lain seperti berburu, menangkap ikan dan lain-lain.

Senin, 08 Juli 2013

Conservation Orangutan Borneo (Pongo pygmaeus)

This task is still subject KSDAH (Conservation of Natural Resources), in semester3. contains about the movement for the conservation of Borneo orangutan by Saqinah Nur Rahmawati


Borneo's orangutans in Ragunan Zoo

Borneo's orangutans in Ragunan Zoo

Borneo Orangutan Description

Indonesia is a country rich in biodiversity so that the No.-3 megabiodiversity country after Brazil and Congo. One of Indonesia is rich in diversity of primate species. Supriatna and Wahyono (2000) states that 20% of world's primate species can be found in Indonesia. One of these is the Orangutan primate species.

Orangutans are the only one of the four great apes that live in Asia, three other great apes, namely gorillas, chimpanzees and bonodo found in parts of Africa (Suhud and Saleh, 2007). Total population 90% are in the territory of Indonesia, which can only be found in Borneo (Kalimantan) and in the northern part of Sumatra. Yet according to the fossil record to experts, by the end Pleistone Orangutan can be found in most of the lowland forests of Southeast Asia, from the foothills Wuliang Shan in Yunnan, South China, to the south of the island of Java, with a broad distribution of the total 1.5 million km ² (Rijksen and Meijard, 1999). According to the Holy Sri Utami Atmoko (2007), Borneo Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and the Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) geographically separated since at least 10,000 years ago, when sea level rise occurred between the two islands.

There are differences that can be seen by observing the morphology and behavior between them. Judging from the morphology, Borneo Orangutan has a brighter hair color and larger body than the Sumatran Orangutan. Borneo Orangutan behavior in nature is moving more slowly and often do activities fell from the tree and the ground. While the Sumatran Orangutan has a more active behavior and rarely do the activities on the ground. This is to avoid themselves from predatory wildlife in Sumatra, which may threaten the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris). If dibandingkanantara males and females, according to the study Purwo Kuncoro (2004) Orangutan males do more activity than female Orangutan.

Orangutan Kalimantan / Borneo (Pongo pygmaeus) including the deployment into the family Hominidae in Kalimantan (Indonesia), Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia). Borneo Orangutan is one of 44 species endemic in Kalimantan (Santosa, 2008). Orangutans of Borneo is divided into three sub-types based on morphological and genetic variation, namely: Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus (northwest section Kalmantan and Sabah), Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii (in the southwestern part of Borneo), and Pongo pygmaeus morio (eastern part of Kalimantan and Sabah) ( Warren et al. 2001).

Sustainability threat Borneo Orangutan

Like the other great apes, orangutans are one of the most endangered primates in the world. Orangutans in the IUCN Red List (2008) are included in the category of Genting (Endangered). What is meant by Genting category is a species with a very high risk of extinction in the wild yag in the near future, and the risk of becoming critical. In practice are included in this group are species in 20 years or 5 generations have extinction ratio greater than 50% (Primack et al, 2007). According to Singleton et al. (2004), the total number of orangutans are expected to decline 14% over the last 10 years until the mid-20th century.

Threat to the greater population of this species, not only because of the threat of habitat but also the threat posed by human activities that are not responsible. Forest destruction, land conversion for plantations, forest fires, illegal logging and habitat exploitation, Orangutan habitat fragmentation, poaching, and trade became the main cause of the decline of these animals.

Climate change also plays an important role against the loss Borneo Orangutan and threatened species will increase in the future is precarious. In the year 1997/1998 drought that began in the Kalimantan due to El Nino which then led to the largest forest fires ever happened (Suhud and Saleh, 2007). This is also evidenced by the data published by Rijksen and Meijaard in 1999 the show has lost 33% during the Borneo Orangutan forest fires of the 1990s period.

Consequently illegal logging Orangutan destroy ecosystems due to the lack of local awareness about illegal logging. WWF noted that most people in Borneo are not so concerned with illegal logging. In fact, the scarcity of jobs means that the average person would love to work in the forestry sector, whether or not legally run. It is triggered by an increase in human population, which led to problems in meeting the needs of humanity through the availability of jobs. Thus undergo things that are not to be responsible for the fulfillment of needs of man.

Orangutan trade was increasingly prevalent with decreasing orangutan population in the wild. Though Orangutans included in Appendix I of CITES (2001), which means Orangutan should not be traded anywhere. However, the law enforcement system that is still less that there are still cases perdaganggan protected animals. Such as the case of 48 orangutans smuggled into Thailand (Atmoko, 2007)

Orangutans living in protected areas and unprotected. Orangutans in Borneo are 15 protected areas, but half of the region that there is not a call for support for Orangutan habitat. Plus a drastic shrinkage continued during the past two decades (Atmoko, 2007). Habitat is reduced by a change in the island's tropical forests and the konersi tropical forests into plantations. Plantation agriculture is not only oil palm plantations, but also acacia, rice, chocolate and so on. As a result of the conversion of this land of 15.5 million hectares of tropical forests (24% of total forest area) as of the year 1985 and 1997 in Sumatra and Kalimantan (FAO, 2000). Now only 86,000 km ² available habitat for orangutans.

Conversion of land into oil palm plantations in Borneo is the international response to the great need for this commodity are used specifically for cooking, cosmetics, mechanics and need to be used as biodiesel resource.

Oil palm is the most productive oil seed in the world. Palm oil has become a very important agricultural product for tropical countries around the world, especially when the price of crude oil reached $ 70 a barrel (Butler, 2010).

Open lowland rainforests for plantations is deforestation which accounts for 24% of the forests in Indonesia is pengggundulan for oil palm plantations (FAO, 2000). Become very concerned that Indonesia has announced plans to double its crude oil production in 2025 (Butler, 2010), a goal that will require a 2-fold increase in the results or just expand the area to be planted with oil palm. This is of great concern, because if the expansion of oil palm cultivation area means the area of ​​forest in the conversion, and the narrowing of Borneo Orangutan habitat space.

In addition to the effects of deforestation there are other impacts that must be considered by all parties that the impact on the environment. Plantations in Indonesia are so damaging that after 25 years of harvesting, oil palm land often abandoned scrubland. Soil may be leached of nutrients, especially in acidic environments, so some plants may grow, making the area without vegetation than the weeds that will be easy to get burned.

Several studies have found a significant reduction of biodiversity decline among 80% to 90% of mammals, birds and reptiles (Butler, 2010). Many animals are not able to enter aan estates, such as orangutans become pests destroy plantations so few companies with illegal hunting plantation workers on the basis of penangungalangan damage that will be done by Orangutan. With the oil palm plantations as has been mentioned previously that the ex-arable land was no longer fertile palm oil, thus indirectly reducing the oil palm plantation life supporting power plant-eating wildlife such as the orangutan is a fruit eater (frugivory), but occasionally eat insects, so the endangered Orangutan. This reduction in carrying capacity (habitat area reduction, reduced availability of food and drink) will slowly lead to extinction. A species said to be extinct when no one individual of the species that live in the world (Primack et al, 2007). Orangutan current condition is alarming, but the legi-again exacerbated by human activities continue to meet their needs.

Discuss the Borneo Orangutan destruction by oil palm plantation company intentionally because it is considered destructive pests with illegal hunting by farm workers is an irony to this country. On the other hand efforts have been made such as creating wildlife Protection Regulations No.233 In 1931, Law no. 5 In 1990, the Ministry of Forestry decree No. June 10, 1991. 301/Kpts-II/1991 and PP. 7 of 1999 as a form of law enforcement efforts. However smuanya back to the awareness of the importance of protecting this species endemic to continue growing conservation ethic with a real movement to conserve orangutans.

Borneo Orangutan Rescue Efforts

Regardless of the number or importance to humans, high economic value or not, every species has the right to life and survival of each species must be guaranteed for all species have intrinsic value according ekosentris view (Deep ecology). Intrinsic value is the value contained in the resource (Fauzi, 2006).

Definition of Conservation of Natural Resources and Ecosystems, according to Law 50 of 1990, is the management of natural resources utilization is done wisely to ensure continuity of supply by continuing to establish, maintain, and improve the quality and value diversity. One of Indonesia's biodiversity that needs to be saved through conservation is the Orangutan. Interference experienced by one element interferes with the whole ecosystem (Olivia, 2004), so the use of conservation concern will be impaired as well.

To overcome the threatened extinction of the Orangutans of Borneo since the 1960s have done reabilitasi Orangutan program with the primary objective to increase the population and improving the quality of life Orangutan (Atmoko, 2007). Rehabilitation is the process of returning animals to the wild of life catch wildlife in a natural environment (Alikodra, 2010) rehabilitation projects to be one way out to overcome a threatened species in the rehabilitation process should also conduct conservation education and conservation efforts involving local communities and widespread. Rehabilitation carried out in the area of ​​Borneo Orangutan distribution, one Tanjung Puting, Central Kalimantan.