Sabtu, 30 April 2011

Shifting AND TRADITIONAL Wisdom Dayaks FOREST RESOURCES IN MANAGING

By: Arkanudin 



Preliminary Humans are creatures berkebudayaan. With the culture of its people can not only align but also to change their environment for survival. This is because culture is a complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, and any other capabilities and habits acquired human beings as members of society (Garna, 1996:157). Thus it can be understood that with a culture that contains a set of human knowledge can be an alternative to respond to their environment, both physical and social. A set of knowledge acquired by humans is a process of learning from what is seen, touched, felt from the environment, which is then actualized in the form of behavior and inherited from generation to generation. When humans actualize pengelaman behavior based on positive experiences to their environment so people will become wise, in managing environmentally sustainable living systems. The values ​​of wisdom to manage natural resources is very important, because empirically one aspect of the crisis the most worrying phenomenon where the exploitation of natural resources is not done wisely, it will eventually lead to destruction or extinction. One example of traditional wisdom model in forest management is a system of shifting cultivation activities conducted by the Dayaks in Kalimantan. 





Shifting is testament to the traditional wisdom of the Dayak people in managing forest resources Measure (in Widjono, 1995:34), explains that the shifting is one of the principal characteristics of Dayak culture. On this basis that Widjono (1998:77) explicitly states that the Dayaks who can not be doubted kedayakannya farming, because they have been deprived of his ancestral cultural roots. Ave and King (in Arman, 1994:129), suggests that the tradition of farming (siffting cultivation or swidden) Dayak people have done since the time of their ancestors, which is the main livelihood. Sellato (1989) in Soedjito (1999:115), estimated by shifting the Dayak people have started two centuries ago. Even Mering Ngo (1990), mentions a way of life farming in various regions in Borneo has been known for 6,000 years BC. In the context of sound forest resource management of traditional wisdom, basically among the Dayak people have certain ways of treating the forest. According to Bamba (1996:14), Dayak people view nature not as an asset or wealth but rather as a house together. The concept of home with this look in every ceremony that precedes certain activities relating to the use of the forest, where there is always the element of permission or seek permission from the forest dwellers that will be tilled. The sound of certain birds or animals as a means of communication between humans and the natural inhabitants. According to the belief of the Dayaks, when the farming activities, especially in choosing lakosi to be tilled, when come across various kinds of signs, such as certain sounds of birds and animals, it is necessary to the ceremony with mempersembah offerings with the intention of fine spirits have supernatural powers not interfere with their lives either individually or in groups perform. Various beliefs as those described, indicating that the Dayak people have a deep graze on the myth, which is an event that is considered sacred, or events experienced directly by the ancestors, although the timing of events could not be ascertained historically, but the history of the event for Dayak people to function as a norm of life. Such thinking gave birth to their perceptions about the wisdom of a forest resource management (Widjono, 1995: 34). In farming in general Dayak tribe that became the main priorities is not productivity but the diversity of crops grown. This is understandable because the Dayak tribe subsistent. This variety is treated in all types of agricultural enterprises as well as in the rubber plantation business. In the farming activities not only grown rice plants, but also planted various kinds of vegetables that old age is relatively short compared with rice. Besides planting various kinds of vegetables amid the fields, they are also taking the time to plant a variety of fruit trees around the cabin if observed plant species planted include tengkawang, durian, complexioned, jackfruit, rambai, rambutan, coconut, areca nut, banana and others. The trees are also a foreshadowing that the forest is already there who process it and if others want to open fields on the ground, must ask permission to the first open forest. Then after all the phases in farming activities were carried out until after harvest, some of them former field was planted back with rubber trees. While other parts allowed to grow into the forest again with a view, a moment can be reopened into the fields. Traditional wisdom through replanting different types of fruit trees that are useful as well as various types of cash crops on the former fields, according Widjono (1998) has broken the myth about the role of the Dayaks in damaging the environment. According to the Dove (1988); Mubyarto (1991) and Widjono (1996:107), there are three myths that underlie the minds of experts about the Dayak cultivators of this: first the cultivators to own land communally and communally consume the results also and have no motivation to preserve it, the two myths that always assumes that the fields of forest damage and wasted economic value of forests, the third myth assumes that the economic system they are subsistence and regardless of the market economy. Traditionally, systems and patterns of forest resource management in Kalimantan are still to be found, where each has characteristics that may not be duplicated elsewhere, such as in West Kalimantan, we know the existence of forest resources management system called tembawang term, while East Kalimantan is known Simpukng crowd and variety of other simpukng. Forest resources management system by the Dayak are economically proven capable of contributing to family income while conserving forest resources. Various accusations addressed to them as a destroyer of forests is not unreasonable, this is because in using the forest as an area of ​​fields simply rely on the equipment used axes and machetes. In contrast to the concession holders who mobilize many workers and utilizing high technology. Forest management by utilizing high technology to make the concept of farming as a model of wisdom Dayak tribe seems increasingly sidelined and this will only stay a historical story of the Dayaks in managing natural resources.
Cover Traditional wisdom of the Dayaks in megelola forest resources, are khakiki basically stems from the religious system that guides and emulating the Dayak community to always behave in harmony with the dynamics of the universe. Despite what the Dayak people, there is not logical because they still believe that the universe is filled with magic powers, so that in every start any work related to forest use there is always the element of permission or request permission to forest dwellers. But the sociological traditions or customs that people do Dayak is merely an effort to preserve and maintain the environment, so that expectations are created equilibrium further the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Traditional knowledge possessed by the Dayaks, especially in managing forest resources, it needs the attention of various parties to preserve it, because it is traditional values ​​rooted in national culture. 






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