Selasa, 12 April 2011

a quick overview of the Dayak

Monday, June 14, 2010 By: Prof.Dr. Arkanudin, M. Si (Professor of Sociology and Anthropology University of Tanjungpura Fisip-Pontianak Kalbar) 

According to the history of the ancestors of the Dayak people who inhabit the provinces of Kalimantan, including the Dayak people who are in neighboring Malaysia, according to Coomans (1987), that contained Dayak tribe in Borneo are the descendants of migrants who came from Yunnan in China South. From the site, small groups wandered through Indo China to peninsular Malaysia, which became a springboard to enter the islands of Indonesia. In addition, there are groups who choose another stepping stone that is through Hainan, Taiwan and the Philippines and then go to Borneo. The move was not so difficult because at the time of glazial (Ice Age), sea level is falling (ebb), so that the small boats even if they can cross the waters separating the islands. The move was expected because the population of Yunnan at that time looking for places that are considered most able to provide opportunities and freedom for them to earn a living, especially for farming and hunting, it seems that the transfer took place not only once occur, but occur in phases (Akil, 1994). According Coomans (1987) the first group who entered the territory of Borneo are a group of Weddid which now no longer exists. Then followed by another group called the Proto-Malays greater. Their displacement takes place in a thousand years and occur roughly 3000-1500 BC. Furthermore Coomans (1987) stated that about five hundred years before Christ lasted longer a major shift from mainland Asia to Borneo by choosing the time and a different path. These groups called deutro-malay Possible Dayak tribes who live in South Kalimantan and Central a few years first stop in Sumatra and Java, while tribes of Dayak in West Kalimantan and East Kalimantan are not stopped. Murut tribes, who settled in the northern part of East Kalimantan, Borneo may enter through the Philippines, after a long stay there before entering Kalimantan. This tribe controlled irrigation system, which is not recognized by other tribes; even Afen (1995), assumed that the migrants from Yunnan tesebut inhabit the island of Borneo has been since the time megalithikum and Neolithikum approximately 1500 BC. Riwut (1958); Lontaan (1975) argued that the immigrants who came from Yunnan is said to be the forerunner of this Dayak tribes, once arrived in Kalimantan in the first inhabited the Kapuas River or Sea of ​​Borneo, but with the arrival of Malays from Sumatra and Malacca soil Semananjung , finally they are getting pushed up the river to grow old fence land to grow much of Borneo Island. Further according to Riwut (1958) in addition to the wither has come again, the Bugis and Makassar which mendiam East Coast and West Coast of the island of Borneo, as well as the Javanese Majapahit kingdom has come during. Foreigners who come in west Kalimantan, namely the Chinese.
Dayak tribes and sub-sub tribe Dayak Dayak tribe in Kalimantan, including the Malaysia-Brunei Darussalam, it is not known exactly how many, within the meaning of the group. Geographic and demographic situation resulted in their isolated and scattered, although they were originally one family, after the process lasted thousands of years of life, as though they have no relationship to each other (Widjono, 1998). That is why relatively many Dayak tribes and diverse, so it is not easy to do the grouping of the Dayak tribe. In the grouping that there are many versions, which have in common with each other and the difference (Widjono, 1998). King (1978); KEdit (1988); Measure (1992); and Zulkarnain (2000): Arkanudin (2005) states that the Dayak tribes who inhabited the island of Borneo consists of hundreds of ethno-linguistic groups can be divided into a large group (Dayak ) because they have a common cultural elements such as physical form, the form of settlement of the long house, linguistic similarities, the corpus of oral tradition, customs, social structure, forms of weapons, and views on the universe. Another thing that is similar according to Djuweng (1992) are all ways to extract natural resources and the use of technology. H.J. Malinckrodt (1928), a former controleur in the colonial era to distinguish based on the similarity of Dayak customary law, which clustered in six clusters Dayak tribe called stammenras namely: stammenras; (1) Kenya-Kayan-Bahau, who inhabit the region of East Kalimantan; ( 2) Ot-Danum, which generally inhabit areas of Central Kalimantan, (3) Iban, who inhabit the East Malaysia Sarawak, (4) Moeroet, who inhabit Sabah, Malaysia and North Eastern Kalimantan, (5) Klemantan, who inhabit the region of West Kalimantan; and (6) stammenras Peonan, represents the wandering tribes in the interior of Borneo. Stohr (1959) conducted a classification which is based on the family tribe will be alignment, or familial equation that divides the Dayak tribe in the three groups, namely: (1) Ot-Ot Danum Dayak-covering Ngaju and Maanyan-Lawangan, (2) the Dayak Moeroet include Murut Dusun - Kelabit, and (3) Dayak Klemantan covering Klemantan and Land-Dayak. Tjilik Riwut (1958) and F.H. Duman (in Lontaan, 1975) dividing the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan contained in seven large family or tribe children, 18 small tribes or tribal sedatuk and 405 small tribes or tribal sefamili, the division is as follows: 1. Dayak Ngaju consists of 4 small tribes namely: 1) Dayak Ngaju, subdivided in 53 subsuku: (1) tribe Baradia, (2) Barahayan; (3) Baranarai (4) Bara Nio, (5) Bara Nyet, (6) Bara Urik; (7) Ole Meneya; (8) Ole Katingan; (9) Tamuan; (10) Seruyan; (11) Mentabi; (12) Baraki or Bakumpai; (13) Bara Raden / Ole Mangkatip; (14) Kahayan ; (15) Ngaju; (16) Barangas; (17) Bara Je; (18) Wood Tangi; (19) Dayak; (20) Equity, (21) Amanda, (22) Labuhan Amas; (23) Alai; ( 24) Hill, (25) Ritap; (26) Balanga; (27) Bajau; (28) Sand, (29) Kapuas; (30) Mentebah; (31) Sembuluh; (32) Arut; (33) Bulik; ( 34) Trunk Cana; (35) Balangtikan; (36) Repeat; (37) Lamandau; (38) Bentian; (39) Mendawai; (40) Joyless; (41) Tabilun; (42) Lampeang / Hall; (43) Tangka Ngaju; (44) Taboyan Teweh; (45) Purrui; (46) Kuwing; (47) Pananyui; (48) Purung; (49) Lantu Ung; (50) Bring Adeng; (51) Lalang; (52) Kali ; (53) Bring: 2) Dayak Ma'anyam, divided in 8 subsuku: (1) Dayak Maanyan Beach, (2) Maanyan Paku, (3) Maanyan Tall, (4) Maanyan Paju, (5) Paju Four; ( 6) Five Continents Maanyan; (7) Maanyan: 3) Dayak Dusun, divided in 8 subsuku: (1) Dayak Dusun Wito, (2) Hamlet, (3) Bayan Tawan, (5) Kerawatan; (6) Bayan; ( 7) Dusun Malang; (8) Karamaun; (9) Hamlet power: 4) Dayak Lawangan, divided in 21 subsuku: (1) Dayak Lawangan Kayau, (2) Lion Rasi, (3) Nail, (4) Ayus; ( 5) Bawu; (6) Tabuyan Mantararan; (7) Malang; (8) Tabuyan Teweh; (9) Mangku Anam; (10) Nyumit; (11) Bantian; (12) Purui; (13) hood, (14) Leo Arak; (15) Hill, (16) Mungku; (17) Benuwa; (18) Bayan; (19) Lemper; (20) dishes, (21) Furnace Lawangan. 2. Apu Dayak Kayan, consists of 3 small tribes namely: 1) Dayak Kenya, subdivided in 24 subsuku: (1) Dayak Kenya, (2) Kenya BAUK, (3) Lepo effort, (4) Uma Klap, (5) Nyibun Saban / Libun; (6) Lepo Death; (7) Ma'Lang; (8) Ma Alim; (9) Lepo Ka '; (10) Ma Badang; (11) Ulun surau / Berau; (12) Ulun; ( 13) Lepi Tau; (14) Lepo Road; (15) Lepo Bam; (16) Lepo Aga; (17) Lepo Tailor; (18) Lepo Bakang; (19) Lepo Skin; (20) Lepo immortal; (21) Lepo tepo; (22) Lepo Oral; (23) Lepo Kayan; (24) Ngure / Urik: 2) Dayak Kayan, subdivided in 10 subsuku: (1) Uma Pliau, (2) Uma Samuka; (3) Uma Puh , (4) Uma Paku, (5) Uma Bawang, (6) Uma Naving; (7) Uma Lasung; (8) Uma Daru; (9) Uma Juman; (10) Uma Leken: 3) Dayak Mangrove, divided again in 26 subsuku: (1) Dayak saputan, (2) Puihing, (3) Mangrove Kayan, (4) Lang Glat, (5) Ma 'Flute, (6) Wai Lang; (7) Uma Wai; (8) Huvang Ana, (9) Huvang Tering; (10) Segai; (11) Nadang; (12) Banning; (13) Ba'Belur; (14) Ma 'Lowang; (15) Uma Aging; (16) Uma Pagung; ( 17) Uma Odor / Uban; (18) Uvang Dali; (19) Mangrove; (20) Uvang Hurai; (21) Uvang Mekan; (22) uvang Bo; (23) Uvang shingles; (24) Uma Mehak; (25 ) Teliba; (26) Cape Linggang. 3. Dayak Iban and Heban or Sea Dayak, subdivided into 11 small tribes namely: (1) Balau Dayaks, (2) Skrang; (3) Saribas, (4) Undup; (5) Kumpung / Ulu Sleep, (6) Sabuyau; (7) Fun; (8) Empran; (9) Kanawit; (10) Katibas; (11) Gaat. 4. Dayak Dayak Klemantan or Army, consisting of 2 small tribes namely: 1) Klemantan Dayak (Dayak Darat), divided in 47 subsuku: (1) Dayak Selakau, (2) Land, (3) Klemantan; (4) Malok; ( 5) tears, (6) Kembayan; (7) Sangkeng; (8) Tawang, (9) Galina; (10) Ribun; (11) Punti; (12) Kadukul; (13) Pigugah; (14) Sakubang; ( 15) Sakujan; (16) Maulang; (17) Ayuh; (18) is important; (19) Batang Tarang; (20) Manyuke; (21) Paranguawan; (22) Sareto; (23) Darit; (24) Deva; (25) Kuwalan; (26) Buttons, (27) Ketiyur; (28) Kenelas; (29) Taba; (30) Cutting, (31) Benawas; (32) Relatives; (33) Sawai; (34) Javan; (35) Park; (36) Entukan; (37) Semerawai; (38) Bowl, (39) Germs / Koman; (40) Mahap; (41) Ulu Sekadau; (42) Cape; (43) Ambawang; (44 ) Sekilap; (45) Ipoh; (46) Siding, (47) Empatang. 2) Dayak Ketungau, divided again into 39 subsuku: (1) Dayak Bandur, (2) Tabun, (3) Begeleng; (4) fever, (5) to please, (6) Rakawi; (7) Sekalau; (8) Malahui; (9) Peturun; (10) Wake, (11) Marakai; (12) bloom, (13) Laughter Page; (14) pages Tuha; (15) Keluas; (16) Kandau; (17) Kelata; ( 18) Stone, (19) Sandai; (20) Bangkang; (21) Lomandau; (22) Delang; (23) Bars Kawa; (24) Bulik; (25) Mamah Army; (26) Rukunu Guhung; (27) Beah; (28) Beginel; (29) Krinu; (30) Kayung; (31) Lauh; (32) Pesaguan; (33) Barley; (34) Kendawangan; (35) Tulak; (36) Kecurapan; (37) Wood Flower; (38) Putatah; (39) Miulanau. 5. Dayak tribe Murut, consists of 3 small tribes namely: 1) Dayak Murut, subdivided in 28 subsuku: (1) Dayak Murut, (2) Bundu, (3) Membakut, (4) Parat, (5) Putatah; (6 ) Dalits; (7) Peduan; (8) Rundun; (9) Kalur; (10) Sepalut; (11) Kun Power; (12) Tempasuh; (13) Tambunan; (14) Kaiau; (15) Ranan; ( 16) Marundu; (17) Rungus; (18) Dumpa; (19) Miri, (20) Tambunwa; (21) Tenggasa; (22) Firm; (23) Kanawit; (24) Lelak; (25) Sebap; ( 26) Narun; (27) Malanau; (28) Dabugus / Ulun Dabugus. 2) Dayak Idaab (Hamlet), subdivided in 6 subsuku: (1) Dayak Bundu, (2) Mambakut; (3) explained, (4) Putetan; (5) Tuaran, (6) Tenggilan. 3) Dayak Tidung, subdivided in 10 subsuku: (1) Ulun Mentarang, (2) Ulun Body, (3) Ulun Dayu, (4) Ulun Putuh; (5) Nilanatau Lang, (6) Ulun Kalabit; (7) Adang, (8) Saban; (9) Keraian; (10) Liban. 6. Dayak Punan, consisting of 4 small tribes namely: 1) Dayak Basap, divided in 20 subsuku: (1) Dayak Kinaru, (2) Sagaba; (3) Sambarukat; (4) Birang; (5) Bala, (6) Dead ; (7) Malmau; (8) Sidung; (9) Luwanggi; (10) Mangging; (11) Eating Ulu; (12) Malattan; (13) Maning; (14) Bengungu; (15) Suwaran; (16) Ulu Pumpkin; (17) Siagong; (18) Long Gi; (19) Malinau / Punan Usun; (20) Stone. 2) Dayak Punan, subdivided in 24 subsuku: (1) Dayak Busang, (2) Long Wai, (3) Aput; (4) Baha, (5) Lisium; (6) Berusu; (7) Semamu; (8 ) Balalu; (9) Are, (10) Tubu; (11) Tukup; (12) Alun; (13) Sang; (14) Benga; (15) Nyibung; (16) Sian; (17) Lagat; (18 ) Tinyar; (19) Bungan; (20) Keriu; (21) Era, (22) Mandai; (23) Penyabung; (24) Dulai. 3) At Dayak, subdivided into 5 subsuku namely: (1) At Parai / At Pari, (2) At Alang-Alang, (3) At Marikit; (4) At Patih Tarukah; (5) At Sia. 4) Dayak Bukat, divided again into 3 subsuku. 7. Dayak Ot-Danum, divided again over 61 subsuku namely: (1) Dayak Lebang, (2) Undan, (3) Village, (4) Seberuang; (5) effort, (6) Linuh; (7) Linuh Pudau; ( 8) Palan; (9) Pandu; (10) Rarai; (11) Muntak; (12) Cross, (13) Jungkau; (14) prostitute; (15) At Danum; (16) Penangkuwi; (17) Nyangai; (18) Asa (19) Banyau; (20) Sahiei; (21) Serawai danun; (22) Ransa; (23) Limbei; (24) Kenyilu; (25) Iban; (26) Tahin; (27) Kuhin ; (28) Pangin; (29) Pananyui; (30) Ellah; (31) Kebosan; (32) Keninjal; (33) Tebidah; (34) Ginih; (35) earned; (36) Jampal; (37) Kayan Danum; (38) Nanga; (39) Ulun Daan; (40) Mentebah; (41) Park Danum; (42) Park Sibau; (43) Mandai Suruk; (44) Palin: (45) Embaloh; (46) Side ; (47) dull; (48) Lebayan; (49) Sebaung; (50) Tawahui; (51) jaws; (52) Pananyari; (53) Duhai; (54) At Bunusu; (55) Tahup; (56) At Noon; (57) Kalang Lupu; (58) Jambung Age; (59) Mount Kambang; (60) Nyahing Uhing; (61) Babuat; (62) Keramai; (63) Serimbu; (64) Ketungau Ulu; (65 ) Kendayan; (66) Sebaruk. In the meantime, Raymond Kennedy (1974) divide the Dayak tribe into: (1) Kenyah-Kayan-Bahau Group, (2) Ngaju Group; (3) Land Dayak Group; (4) Klemantan-Murut Group; (5) Iban Group (6) the Punan Group. While Bernard Sellato (1989) who based his classification followed the great rivers, dividing the Dayak tribe into eight categories: 1) The Malays 2) The Iban 3) Barito group, including among others Ngaju, Ot-Danum, Daylight, Joyless, Luangan, Benuaq, Bentian and Tunjung 4) group called the Western or Bidayuh (Land Dayak) includes the tribes in western Sarawak and West Kalimantan 5) The Northeast, mainly located in Sabah, including the person or Kadazan Dusun, Murut Mainland and several groups around the coast of Brunei and East Kalimantan. Their language was related to the language of Southern Philippines 6) The Kayan and Kenyah, living in the vicinity of East Kalimantan and Sarawak. 7) The Punan, including Beketan, Punan and muddy which is a wanderer and sterdapat in all areas in the forests of Borneo, except Sabah 8) Middle North group, including people Kelabit, Lun Dayeh, Lun Bawang and Murut Bukit, Kajang, Cloudy, Melanau. Sub-sub tribe Dayak are relatively numerous and varied, but they have together as one indigenous Dayak tribes of Kalimantan. At the present time the Dayak people live split-scatter throughout Borneo, consists of small communities that have a distinct language dialects and traditions of some cultures are not exactly the same, has the customary unity called binua (Mudiyono, 1993). Dayak communities that are small, generally identified with the name of the tribe or subsuku, also with the name of a river that flows through their residential area or region of origin as the name which was said Coomans (1987), that the Dayak people themselves give name by name tribes or sub tribes, such as the Kenyah, Kayan people, people Bahau, people Tunjung and so forth. In addition, their names are also specified by the name of the village, such as a person Tering, Long Connecting people, people Melapeh. The names are often the same as the name of the river, where their settlements are now or the past. The names were often contain some of the history of their movement in the past, for example Tering people, who inhabited the village Tering is a sub tribe of tribes Bahau which can be classified in the Kayan ethnic group. Tering Bahau River is a child, and is the son Bahau River Kayan River. People living in areas Tering Tering River. Based on the explanation put forward by Coomans it gives an understanding that the Dayak tribe in giving a name is always associated with the name of a river that crosses in which they resided. This is the one who according to Lontaan (1975) which led to many sub-sub-tribe of the Dayaks.
Classification In The Dayak Literature which detail and discuss about the classification or arrangement such as the Dayak community in writing by Frodlin Measure in his book Challenge Answer Dayak Tribe (1971), although in his writings about the structure of society peel Ngaju Dayak in Central Kalimantan, but in general the composition of the Dayak community in Borneo was not too much different from each other. According Lontaan (1975) that the classification or arrangement of the Dayak community in Kalimantan are generally the same, which sets it apart is the term or language. In the past according to Riwut (1958); Measure (1971); Lontaan (1975), that to declare a class, group or class in the Dayak community used the term "messenger, jalahan, bumuh, babuhan and ungkup". Based on these groups, the Dayak community in general is divided into two major categories: namely (1) free groups, and (2) class of slaves.
Independent Group This class society is divided in two groups: (1) sent Gantong or sent Tatau, and (2) sent Randah or sent Pehe yet. The group sent Gantong or sent Tatau namely community group which included high-class nobles, rich and perfect human type. Dominant size to determine the limits of this Gantong class or classes in the past is to look at the number jipen or rewar that they have, the more head jipen / rewar the higher the position, because usually jipen or rewar can freely carry jipen and rewar, if he can paid all its debts to his master plus fines on agreed prior to maturity. Group Gantong or sent tatau usually have wealth, position and prestige, size of property they have is called the sacred crock pot haramaung and a sacred treasure of the divine comes down from heaven to the seven that the ancestors have handed down, a number of parcels of land and garden on top of it like a rubber (Havea brasiliensis), rattan (Calamus caesius), fruits, soil perwarisan in the village, the number of buffaloes, cows, pigs, poultry and other animals. In view of the relationship and kinship groups kekarabatan Gantong or sent tatau has a rich and honorable lineage, their name is known by the whole village or villages along the river flow. If stakeholders customary or traditional chief was not in place, it is not uncommon for this group were asked opinions on various matters, especially issues related to implementation of customary law and other things that are considered important as a party or event of death when someone dies. The second class of free groups are sent Randah or sent pehe-yet, that is low or poor segments of society. Group sent this low, although including an independent class, but still well differentiated socio-economic status to those who do not own property, especially the sacred treasure which marks a direct relationship with the supreme divinity, although they have some sacred object, but its value is generally lower. Sent low implicit understanding and religious understanding that they were derived from divinity indirectly, only they live in poverty and suffer because of the situation. Naming pehe not yet contain the notion of social value, they do not have wealth as a sacred heritage and adequate, a treasure they have generally lower values ​​than sent Gantong and lower than the property which is owned mostly in villages or rural communities, they do not have jipen or rewar. Sent pehe yet still be involved in regulating the life of society, custom case and others but in the development of functions that are relatively low compared with Gantong sent.
Slave class. In a slave society Dayak groups are divided again into two classes, namely: (1) Jipen; and (2) Rewar. Both classes are always associated with a class on it, whether or Rewar Jipen work on employer or master. Jipen are slaves in their masters controlled by the employer or because the owner can not repay debt maturing debt up to its promises. The emergence of this class according Lontaan Jipen (1975) caused by factors: (1) comes from the descendants of the mother who was already an Jipen, (2) due to debt that is not terlunaskan after it is guaranteed, (3) due to customs violations, fines imposed by money, but can not afford to pay, (4) the result of "whoredom" with the purchase, who spent a property; (5) being unable to pay interest on debt from borrowed capital, and (6) due to losing the war, so a prisoner. Subsequently according Lontaan (1975), to get back its independence a slave must meet the demands of indigenous peoples that are available to be taken that: (1) must pay off all its debts, (2) after every harvest is entitled to receive ten percent of the crop owner, this section can sold or lent at interest, thus allowing his installment payments or repay its debts, (3) even though the night, are entirely of one's own; work performed at night time is right, such as weaving, carving and so is his personal property that can be sold, (4 ) if there is work the forest, such as taking cane, then a certain amount he is entitled to receive wages, and (5) are allowed to maintain their own cattle with memgurangi not work for the owner, which can then be rewarded with money. But in fact someone who has become Jipen is very difficult to break away from the power of her employer, according to the Measure (1971) this is because in addition to his debt since he doubled Jipen status in certain multiples magnitude far greater than the interest also of the Jipen it by her employer given that drinking from an oil or mixed with food Jipen, with the intention that the Jipen not have a mind to break away from the status Jipennya and always according to the command and will of their employers without any strings attached. The second class in a class of slaves is Rewar namely class of hereditary slaves belong from the owner. The emergence of this Rewar class, according to Lontaan (1975) primarily as a result of the punishment of violations of customs violations, and also once a major result of losing the war. Rewar have the lowest status compared Jipen, who in his work Rewar not only as servants, messengers or servants but his life is almost like animals, human rights are hardly recognized as his master, reputedly said Rewar are often tortured, whipped and worked not know the time . Rewar may only eat food from the rest of the family members of her employer. Rewar should not be sitting with her employer, and when dealing with their employer have to bow your head and not allowed to see the face of her employer if the employer went so well should not be passing in front of him. Rewar bed not her employer's house, but in a small cottage behind the house of the employer, which is adjacent to the kitchen and barn animals buffalo, cow or pig. In addition to these two parties (the Free and Slave), the Dayak people still have two more segments of society, namely: (1) Balian (priests), and (2) Hantuen. Balian (the priests) is a community group that has expertise and special skills, while Hantuen is a community group because it has a strange or deviant behavior such as having jobs like menyantet, poison and harm people through spells. With the changes and development of trust in accordance with the teachings of their religion, the public distribution system based on social classes in a traditional way as that proposed by Riwut, Measure and Lontaan it, has not become a reference in the life of the Dayak. Based on the results of research conducted by Mudiyono (1995) against Ribun Dayak community in West Kalimantan, found that the classification of the Dayak people who have now not in terms of high or low based on descent, but more likely to refer to functional positions such as indigenous groups, formal government, civil and farmer groups.
Dayak Tribe Kinship System Dayaks in Kalimantan subsuku consists of a large amount, but the same can be said kemasyarakatannya system. Systems owned kekarabatan is bilateral or double descent, which calculates kinship through two lineages, namely through the lineage of the male or husband and of the woman or wife. The term Hawaiian kekerabatannya by type or generation type, which is the term used to refer to siblings (sibling) is equal to the term used to refer to a cousin (cousin) (Koentjaraningrat, 1977 and Haviland, 1988). It is also a basic principle of the Dayak descent, that girls atupun boys receive equal treatment from both parents and the relatives of the father and maternal relatives. For the Dayak, although the kinship terms are not as complex as the system kekarabatan the Javanese, who have a kinship term to refer to 9 generations up and down, but in broad kinship kinship in general they can recognize all members of his family according to the flow relationships relatives (Sapardi, 1992). In this kinship kinship divided into two groups, namely affineal kin are relatives or family groups who have blood ties descent from one common ancestor or geneologis the same, and consanguineal kin are a group of families who become members of his family because there is one family member married with one family member relative of the (Haviland, 1988). Mating system in the Dayak community basically adopts a eleotherogami marriage because they do not recognize the ban or mandatory, as the system is endogamy or exogamy. Prohibition is known is simply because the nearest blood relations in both the descendants of a straight line upwards or downwards until the seventh degree. According to the belief of the Dayaks degrees to seven would be the closest relatives back again because of the degree to seven this will start again the calculation of the first degree and so on (Muslim, 1985). For the Dayak people have been married when there was no requirement must be settled within one of the relatives. Each person can decide whether to stay with relatives own and dwell in or around the house relatives, or exit from environmental groups to get into the environment kekerabatannya relatives of his wife. Children born of such marriages will be in environments where a husband and wife kekerabatannya is located. The principle of bilateral descent, also made the responsibility of husband and wife together in the family either in the child's education and in control of the family economy. Not infrequently a mother involved in activities such fields, grazing, harvesting and fetched the sap, even so in some ways still exist differences in the division of labor between husband and wife, considering that not all jobs can be a mother. The principle of inheritance held in the Dayak community, basically does not distinguish between boys and girls. But in certain cases the difference position boys with girls in the family is still there for example, in the division of tasks in the home, other than that boys are also always get a deeper distribution systems prior approval from their daughters in terms of field distribution. On the other hand does not always get the boys division more than girls, because in the Dayak also known division of inheritance, and for those who still live with their parents will get more parts. Sometimes the whole heritage of the parents will be given to children who live, because he is responsible for the old days both parents to death, although this does not mean the other brothers did not get anything. Only if they want to open fields or rubber notch and the legacy of their parents, they are required to ask permission to the families who wait for him, so the family will indicate where they were farming and rubber plantations which have ditoreh.
Poskan Komentar