Jumat, 15 April 2011

DAYAK CULTURE PAST AND PRESENT

By: Prof. Arkanudin, M. Si (Professor of Sociology and Anthropology University of Tanjungpura Fisip Pontianak West Kalimantan) 




INTRODUCTION Dayak tribe, as other tribes, have a culture or customs of its own that also are not exactly the same with other tribes in Indonesia. Mores who live in the Dayak community is an essential element, the root of human identity for Dayak. Culture can be defined as an entire system of ideas, actions, and the work of humans in the context of a society that used the property of men with learning (Garna, 1996). If the terms are used to interpret the Dayak culture then parallel with it, Dayak culture is the whole system of ideas, actions and results of human work in the context of community life Dayak Dayak Dayak people be possessed by learning. This means that the culture and customs that have been entrenched in the life of the Dayak community, not its ownership through the existing biological inheritance in the human body Dayak, but obtained through a learning process handed down by generations from generation to generation. Further based on the notion of culture, when referring to a form of culture as expressed Koentjaraningrat, then the Dayak culture can also be found in the third form, which include: First, a form of culture as a set of ideas, values, norms, regulations . Being it is an essential form of cultural or often called by custom, which serves as a good behavior to manage, control and give direction to human behavior Dayak, was evident in the various traditional ceremonies are performed in accordance with the cycle of life, namely birth, marriage and death , also appeared in various traditional ceremony associated shifting cycle; Second, a form of culture as a behavior pattern, or commonly known as social systems. Social system that consists of human activities that interact constantly refers to certain patterns that is based on a custom order their own behavior, it appears in the social life of the Dayak people who from childhood until old age is always confronted with the rules regarding things which should be done and which prohibited the unwritten nature inherited from generation to generation as a guideline in the Dayak community to behave; Third, a form of culture as objects of human creation, commonly known as physical culture , of the overall work of the Dayak people, such as homes and other long. Based on this understanding, the Dayak culture is very meaningful and very important role, which is an integral part of the life process of the Dayaks. Or in other words Dayak culture in the development of its history has grown and developed along with the Dayak community as a supporter. Today, along with the development and the changing times, Dayak culture also experienced a shift and change. This means that the Dayak culture is not static and are always dynamic, even so, until now there are those who still survive and not deterred by the change of generation, even getting to show his identity as an ancestral heritage. In this context, and in this paper intends to strip the culture contained in the Dayak community, either in the form of material and non material culture.
CULTURE DAYAK Religion and Belief Systems The belief held by a tribe can be traced through cultural expressions such as folklore, especially in stories about events that shaped the myth of the universe and man as well as other myths that describe the intrinsic linkage between human beings and the natural surroundings (Umberan, 1994). The same was said by Measure (1994) that to understand the religious meaning of nature around the Dayak culture, the source of the most able to help especially the myth-myth about the universe and human events and other myth-myth that describes the attachment and the intrinsic linkage between human with the natural surroundings. Myth is not just a story, but through the myth that living in the Dayak community to reveal the underlying secrets and lies behind the attitude and behavior of the Dayak tribe. Keberadaan myth believed the truth, is considered sacred, containing wonderful things, and generally ditokohi by the gods, because that myth be based to organize the life of the Dayak people who appear on various conditions such as tradition, ritual and cult. Myth as history is lived by the Dayak though the events narrated in the myth is not bound by time and space. History in the context of the Dayak tribe understanding of these myths can not be verified historically, according to the Measure (1994) is considered as a historical myth because it is internalized by human sedemikianlah Dayak. Dayak tribe of trust is closely linked to the surrounding environment, such as animals, plants, water, earth and air. The belief was so strong that the Dayak tribe believe that life would be good if the balance of the cosmos, because that every living being is obliged to continuously maintain harmony and balance to the universe, especially human beings according to the Dayak tribe of trust is an integral part of nature (Seli, 1996). Belief systems and cultural values ​​held by the Dayak tribe closely related that it is difficult to separate. Both things are equally influential on the lives of the Dayak (Seli, 1996). In line with the opinion of Seli, Alqadrie (1994) also states that the belief system or religion for the Dayak ethnic group can hardly be separated by cultural values ​​and socio-economic life of their day-to-day. This applies also between the values ​​of that culture with ethnicity in the Dayak community. This fact was the background for the conclusions Coomans (1987) and Alqadrie (1991) which states that keperipadian, behavior, attitude, behavior, and socio-economic activities of the Dayaks of daily guided, supported by and connected not only with systems of belief or religion and customs or customary law, but also by cultural values ​​and ethnicity. Dayak tribe in Borneo has a belief system is a complex and highly developed (Alqadrie, 1987). The complexity of belief systems are based on the traditions of the Dayak community that contains two principles: (1) elements of ancestral beliefs (Ancestral belief) that meneknkan on ancestor worship, and (2) belief in God is one (the one God) with highest power and merupkan a prima causa of human life (Alqadrie, 1990). In a research team Research Office of Education and Culture Department of West Kalimantan (1988) found that the ancestral belief system in the Dayak community contains various regulations concerning the relationship between man and God, man with man, man with ancestral spirits, and human nature and its contents. Even according Alqadrie (1994) and Seli (1996) relates the belief systems of Dayak communities also believe that God is the highest one (the one highest God) has two functions or divine character (devinity). The characters inhabit a world "above" or the world that "higher", and other characters live "under" or a "lower" the earth is a human habitation. Dayak people believe these two characters each contain characteristics of good and bad. Complexity belief system of the Dayaks, according Alqagrie (1994) in the mark also by their ability to absorb some elements of religious or belief from the outside such as the influence of China in the use of ceramic goods (bowls and jars) that are considered to have magical powers and can bring good luck, and use various kinds of decoration dragon (Tambon) or (dragon), which symbolizes a mythical one supreme God as the ruler of the world. Further according to Alqdarie (1994) derived from the influence of other external elements Hunduisme and Islamism. Both of these elements in the Dayak community can be found in religious terms used to describe God, like Mahatara which probably originated from the term in Hinduism. Supreme Batara which means God is great, or Mahatala, Lahatala / Alatala that comes from Allah, the Exalted in Islamic greeting which means that Allah Most High. In addition, the one supreme God is symbolically expressed by hornbills which presents the Godhead of the world "above". In the meantime, the use of hornbills and the dragon as a symbol of God is one, in line with the opinion of Durkheim on totemism. An important element of trust in the Dayak ancestors were Chinese ceramic goods, decorations that use dragon symbol and hornbills, and Dayak ethnic groups themselves as adherents of their ancestral beliefs can be said to parallel to the three elements are met by the Australian totemism Durkheim (in Alqadrie, 1994) that the symbol totemik (totemic emblems) is in the form of animals or plants, and a member of the, tribe or clan (clan) Three elements in the Dayak community is a unity that is integrated and is a manifestation of social organization. In connection with that, McLennan (1986 in Alqadrie, 1994) stated that a close relationship between totemism is a specific form of social organization. Alqadrie (1994) view that the use of dragons and hornbills is not a manifestation of the simplicity of thought Dayaks in Kalimantan, but rather a reflection of the complexity of their belief system in which totemism is not merely a belief, but may also be a source, or at least, an embryo from developing other religions. Moreover the use of two types of animals is also an embodiment of a typical social organization in the Dayak community. Seeing this fact can be said that it really is a clump of Dayak tribes are unique because even though they live in an environment that all natural and traditional but may bear a thought that relgius a complex and very perfect.
Knowledge Systems Knowledge about the symptoms of Nature Needs of the Dayak people get a lot of rice fields has given birth to knowledge systems that can understand the properties of natural phenomena that affect the shifting. According Mudiyono (1995) knowledge about natural phenomena that are associated with shifting the Dayaks in Kalimantan is the knowledge of the seven stars. If a star has arisen then seven in the evening air will be very cold until morning is a sign that people have reached in time begin to open fields. If the seven stars in the East, while one star less than seven stars signify that the person has been allowed to start growing rice. If the sky looks like tempbok lines and clouds resemble fish scales so people know that summer has arrived. Conversely, if the sky was red in the morning and clouds clot as a mountain is foreshadowing that day or soon the rainy season arrives. Symptoms of the coming rainy season could also unknown if the roots of the wood that grows alongside rivers and trees sprouting fruits of many are flowering. When signs of nature have been told that the dry season will soon arrive then people start preparing themselves to farming. Machetes and pickaxes as a means of farming began in the grindstones so as not to see obstacles in time to open fields. Farming job really should pay attention to the rotation time and understand its properties. Discrepancy between the natural conditions with the stages of farming will lead to crop failures and when this is happening is a catastrophe for the population. Their knowledge systems are also taught that if it will make the materials home, should not cut trees and bamboo timber at the time of the moon in the sky is bigger because of violations committed by means of timber and bamboo will quickly be eaten powder. Therefore a good time to gather building materials of wood and bamboo is when the moon is receding.
2. 2. 2. Knowledge About the Physical Environment The physical environment of the Dayaks is a forest. Dayak people know exactly the types of forests is best to be a field. To ensure the fertility of soil, usually first examine the circumstances they grow trees and soil on the surface. If there is a large timber trees and tall indicates that land had long been in ladangi and therefore humusnya very fertile. To ensure the fertility of soil in watching her way into the tip of the machete into the ground approximately 10 cm. When machete revoked the land attached to two sides of machetes to show about soil fertility. If a lot of land attached to the two sides of machetes and loose blackish means the local soil is fertile. Conversely, if the local soil conditions skinny then attached to two sides of a machete is a sandy soil. Other known physical environment as a place to farm is the land located in the valley between the hills. Soil type is specifically Dayaks in West Kalimantan on the call type of soil or Payak Payak labak. Things are always watery marshland and muddy. Dryland marshland are usually planted to rice monoculture for 3 years in a row. After year three marshland abandoned for 2-4 years and then planted again.
Knowledge About Plant Types Knowledge of the flora obtained from generation to generation. A wide assortment of plants and herbs known as the flora to eat, make medicine and to hunt and fish poisoning. Types of plants for their own consumption but also plant type of rice known as pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), maize (Zea mays L.), cassava (Manihot utilissima L), or young bamboo shoots (Bambusa spinosa). Plant type crops and vegetables grown on land intercropping fields. Fruit trees are the most widely cultivated durian that is not well, thus the more memorable as a fruit tree that grows wild on the lands of the former fields. Dayak people also know the types of vegetation makers colors on woven mats or craft items. The color red can be obtained from the rind joronang to give the red color on the rattan and so forth. Porete bark can provide black and ngkubogng bark can be used as glue in wood. The types of wild vegetation in the forests of Borneo. Dayaks in Kalimantan, West Kalimantan also recognize the special wood called Ipuh sap that contains toxic and very dangerous because it can be deadly. The sap wood is used for memolesi Ipuh spearhead or end child chopsticks. Hunted animals like deer, wild boar affected by the spearhead of the sap wood that has been given Ipuh, although only slightly injured in a minute then the animal will die. The skin and flesh around the wound must be removed before cooking and should not be eaten. As people familiar with the forest environment, the Dayak people also have good knowledge in distinguishing the types of wood are very good quality for the potion building materials. Such as iron wood or wood purchases (ensidroxylon zwageri), red meranti (Shorea leprosula), tekam (hopea sangal Korth), tengkawang (Shorea Sp), Medang (litrea Sp), ramin (Gonystylus bancanus kwiz) and Rengas (Buchanania arborescens)
Livelihood Systems and Equipment Life Establish and maintain life in the Dayak people can not be separated by forest, or in other words in the forest around them is part of life and in meeting the needs of life is highly dependent of forest products. Sapardi (1994), explained that the forest is an area that integrates with them as an ecosystem. In addition, the forest has become a habitat area for generations and even the forest is part of their lives holistically and mentradisi until now, as they have de facto control of the region and from the forest they acquire basic life resources. Socio-economic activities of the Dayaks include collecting forest products, hunting, fishing, farming folk such as coffee, pepper, rubber, coconut, fruits and others, as well as farming activities (Sapardi, 1992). Economic activity is the principal Dayak people who farm in an effort to provide rice and plantation needs of the people as a source of cash that can be used to provide for another life; although their activity is still a subsistence economy (Mering Ngo, 1989; Dove, 1985). According to Armand (1994), the Dayak if want to farm them off into the woods, and the first cut down large trees and small forests, if they pursue their plantations tend to choose plants that resemble the forest, such as rubber (Havea brasiliensis Sp), rattan (Calamus caesius Spp), and tengkawang (Shorea Sp.) Such a tendency is not a coincidence but a reflection of the intimate relationship that has lasted for centuries by forest and all its contents. The relationship between the Dayak and the forest is a reciprocal relationship. On one side of nature gives the possibilities for cultural development of the Dayak, Dayak people on the other hand constantly changing the face of the forest in accordance with cultural patterns dianutnya (Arman, 1994). Contiguity between the Dayak deep forests, in turn gave birth to what is called shifting. Measure (in Widjono, 1995), explains that the shifting is one of the principal characteristics of Dayak culture. Ave and King (in Arman, 1994), argued that the tradition of farming (siffting cultivation or swidden) Dayak people have done since the time of their ancestors, which is the main livelihood. Sellato (1989 in Soedjito 1999), estimated by shifting the Dayak people have started two centuries ago. Mering Ngo (1990), mentions farming way of life in several areas of Kalimantan have been known 6000 years BC. Almutahar (1995) suggested that the activity of the Dayaks in Kalimantan farm quite varied, but within this variation there is also the same basis. The equation can be seen from the technology used, how to find the ground or open forest that will be used, source of labor and so forth. In any farming activity on the Dayak is always preceded by searching the ground. In looking for land to be used as the location of the land which they did not act recklessly. Measure (1994), explained that the Dayak people basically never dared intentional damage the forest. Forest, earth, rivers, and the whole environment is part of life. According to Mubyarto (1991), the Dayak before taking something from nature, especially if you want to open or work that is still virgin forest must meet certain criteria: first, the intention is to notify the chief or head of customs, secondly, a person or persons assigned looking for a suitable forest. They are going to live or dwell in the forests to obtain instructions or signs, by giving offerings. Effort to get this sign accompanied by checking whether the forest and land suitable for farming or gardening; third, if already obtained for certain where the appropriate forest, forest opening ceremony was immediately performed, as a sign of recognition that the forest or the earth is what gives life to them and as expectations for the open forest was pleased to bless and protect them. The results Mudiyono (1990), argued that the criteria used by the traditional chief or chiefs gave permission to cultivate the land in view of the certainty of the legal relationship between members of the alliance with a particular soil and claim to apply "into" and "out". Applicability of "out" states that only members of the alliance that holds the full rights to work, process and collect the results from working on the ground. Nevertheless there are times when there were people from outside the alliance that because certain conditions were given permission to stay farming for a period of one or two cropping seasons. Applicability of "into" states regulate private rights over land in accordance with customary norms that have been agreed. Members of the fellowship can have the right to retain and cultivate the land, gardens or marshes. When sharecroppers left the region (continent) and not come back then the possession of the land to be lost. Tenure back to the fellowship and through deliberation Katuas can give them to other members to master. But if someone came to his death still live in the fellowship area that has been tilled the soil can be passed on to their offspring. The results Kartawinata (1993) on the Punan, and Sapardi (1992) on the Dayak Ribun and Pandu, in general, choose a location to farm at a location adjacent to a river. Places like the fertile and easily accessible. In a case study of shifting tribal Kantu 'in West Kalimantan, Dove, (1988) details the stages of shifting cultivation as follows: (1) preliminary selection of places and penghirauan omen birds, (2) clean the bushes and small trees with machetes, (3) cutting down trees larger with pickaxe Dayak, (4) after the dry, burning vegetation is cleared, (5) growing rice and other crops that have been burned berabu place it (later in the transplant field entered sludgy rice), (6) weeding the fields (except fields of primary forest); (7) keep the fields from wild animals disorder; (8) held a rice crop harvest, and (9) transporting the crop to the house. Subsequently according Soegihardjono and Sarmanto (1982) there are four additional activity that is no less important in farming activities are: (1) farm equipment manufacture (ie, forge iron, making / wood carving and weaving grass or rattan), (2) membangunan cottage on the farm , (3) processing of rice, (4) to plant crops instead of rice. In each phase of field work activities are usually always preceded by certain ceremonies. This is done with the intention that the fields that they do will get a blessing and avoid a catastrophe. Based on the results of research conducted by Dakung (1986) of the Dayak tribe in West Kalimantan, that the equipment used in conducting social and economic activities such as collecting forest products, hunting, fishing, people such as coffee plantations (Coffea arabica), rubber (Havea brasiliensis) , coconut (Cocos nucifera), fruits, among others are knives, axes. baliong, Portugal, pangatam, bide, Inge, atokng, nyiro, Pisok rubber, spears and others. In the meantime, the types of household appliances such as cooking utensils such as crockery or until there from brass or iron to cook rice, kuwali made of clay or metal, the metal pan, kettle or kettle of metal materials, and stone fireplace. Types of devices include sleeping mats made of leaves and leaf dadang urun, hump is made of rattan mats, pillows made of kapok (cotton), which disarung with cloth, klambu, katil and pangking ie beds made of wood .
Art Dayak people, although in a somewhat simple life, was very fond of going to the arts. According Riwut (1958) art which is owned by the Dayaks in Kalimantan, in the form of art: (1) dance, (2) voice, (3) carving, and (4) painting. To know more deeply this type of art owned by the Dayak as suggested by Riwut will be described in detail as follows: Dance Dance, the living and growing environment of the Dayak community in the form: (1) Nasai type of dance that is intended to welcome the guests great (dignitary), welcomed the heroes who won the war, made by old people, women especially the girls with his footwork is accompanied by sound art and sounds . (2) Gantar, the type of dance that is intended not only to welcome the guests glorious, also dances in the ceremonial cutting of paddy. These dances are on the Dayak Punan, Kenyah, and Bahau. Nginyah dance, this dance war dance known as consisting of two kinds: first, to defend yourself if where the war dance performed by men and women, secondly, in the show when there is a party. This dance is using the saber weapon, chopsticks and shields, contained in Ot Dayak Kenyah, Punan and Kenyah Kenyah Bahau. (3) Deder, this dance there are two types of Deder Day and Deder Middle Village dedicated to welcome guests and when there are ceremonies and others, originating from the region and Barito Barito Hulu Central. (4) Bukas, the type of dance that is dedicated to welcome the arrival of Commander of the war, conducted by 1-2 to 7 people consisting of boys and girls by using a bamboo spear and accompanied by songs. There on the Dayak tribe Maanyan and Hamlet. (5) Nganjan, this type of dance performed by both men and women who danced around the animals, like cows, buffaloes, for those who would be killed for the ceremony the party drove indigenous ancestor spirits to heaven, called "tiwah". There on the Dayak tribe Klemantan, Katingan and Kahayan. (6) Dedeo (coral dedeo), which is a common type of dance offered at the wedding party from the Dayak tribe in Central and Barito Barito Hilir. (7) Balian, the dances are solely dedicated to caring for the sick who are usually carried out by Balian is a man for 1-3 nights. This dance is almost contained in all the Dayak tribe. (8) Kinyah, Kenyah dance but this is not the usual dance is a dance specially studied by the ancient Dayak officers who used to fend off enemy attacks and to relieve the body jumps and strengthen the hand to cut off the head of the enemy. This dance comes from Dayak Dayak Kenyah or Bahau from Hulu Mahakam and the Apo Kayan in East Kalimantan region. (9) The framework or Gumbeuk Dance, this dance is dedicated to the khakekatnya at the ceremony "Ijambe or Manyalimbat" conducted by men and children around the place with dry bones of the deceased. (10) Flower Pandan, the type of dance performed by young Dayak and holding hands, mainly found in the Dayak tribe in West Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. (11) Nyadum Nyambah, which is a dance of apology and forgiveness to the guest. This dance originated from the Kapuas district. (12) Hatusuh Bua, namely dance happily in time to welcome the season much fruit and abundant. This dance comes from Dayak tribe in Kapuas. (13) Menggetem, namely happy dance performed during the rice crop. This dance comes from Dayak tribe in Kapuas. (14) Kinjak Karing, namely dance performed by women to defend the heroes who are fighting. This dance is found in Dayak tribes and Kahayan Kaputen Kapuas Hulu. (15) Flute Balawung, the type of dance that is performed when incubate and hatch chicken telornya. This dance is contained in the Dayak tribe in Kapaten Kapuas. (16) Portugal, which is kind of dances are performed at the time of planting rice with the way in Portugal, which originates from the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan.
Sound Art Art in the form of sound art of living and growing environment of the Dayak community is in the form of songs relating to religious life which they profess and believe, like the songs when the rice crop, the paddle, farming, pounding rice, fighting, walking in the forest, hunting, while the party, rejoice, and songs that praise God and singing about the death of the family, including: (1) Kandan, ie songs that contain the flattery and praise while praying hopefully happy and prosperous people, and leadership for the rule is always wise and fair. This song found on ethnic Dayak Siang or Joyless at Barito Hulu. (2) Dedeo and Ngaloak, the type of song performed at a party during the marriage or in a small party, found in Central Dusun Dayak tribe Barito regency. (3) Setangis, that song made at the feast of death. In khakekatnya this song just based on the principle in the history of death and his services as well as the position of family life and family who died are still abandoned. (4) Manawar, namely singing to accompany the soul or spirit of rice to his Lord, made by parents, experts and scholars of religion indigenous Dayak. (5) Kayau, the song that tells something that is done by a Dayak girls bersahut-replication 2-4 people. (6) Mansana Kayau Home, the song is sung at night before bed by their parents to rekindle the spirit of her children to have a sense of resentment against people who have been killed by Tambun Regents. (7) Ngendau, namely singing to frolic among the youth and the girl with bersahut-replication. (8) Kelalai-negligent, that is a chant accompanied by dancing to welcome the authorities or the guest. Hymns have the Dayak tribe Mama (land) in the City Waringin. (9) Natun Pangpangaal, the song laments the death cry of grief as there are families. (10) Dodoi, which is a song performed at the paddle boat or raft. (11) Dondong, the song is done either at the time of planting (sowing) and cut the rice. (12) Ngandan, namely singing to praise or rocked youths committed by an adult. (13) Mansana Bandar, the song that tells a warrior princess in ancient times. (14) Balian, the song that was sung during the ceremony ceremonial escort tiwah spirits of people who are deceased (dead). As an illustration put forward some examples of verses from the songs, such as songs associated with funeral ceremonies on the Dayak tribe Maanyan: Tawang kanyu groaned tumpalatan Angkang outstretched ba iwu jumpun haket There malupui Lalan mainsang inse Enoi isasikang Piak Tawang Takuit ma-eminent kekenrein Umbak basikunrung Bakir
Which means in Indonesian: In order not to go astray in the refinement Suspended in dense forest Do not follow the tortuous path Lorong branch like a chicken leg Getting lost in the sea off the devastating waves struck Another is a song Contah related to the problem of war in Ngaju Dayak language: Amon Rikat Rambang will Manang Antang overlay overlay tinggang luster Manintu panunjuk ije gantau hila Amon tege imeteng dawen Sawang tingang cormorant
Antang manri he hakipak While menguik Amon ampie exhausted will lose Manari while manangis Manintu patinju ije imeteng cottage apoi

Which means in Indonesian:
If the chain to fight Rambang Fly like a flying eagle tinggang Towards the right instructions If there are tied Sawang tinggang cormorant
Eagle dance does not move its wings As he whistled If it seems to be losing Rinmgkai Dancing fly weeping Towards the instructions that tied cottage fire

Sculpture Art in the form of sculpture in the form of carvings on the upstream saber made of wood or deer horn, glove saber, sculpture, shield and chopsticks. All of these carvings have names and meanings of its own.
Portraiture Art in the form of painting that is in the form of the Dayak people of painting the entire body of human bodies (tattoos) by using a tool called "Tutang or Count" conducted a very thorough and careful. The pictures in the coffin which was named "runi", in stumbled stumbled kakurung (home place to store the bones of people who have died), in sculpture and others. Further described by Riwut (1958) and Sukanda (1994) that the Dayaks in Kalimantan in the activities of dancing and singing in various types of songs are always supported by various kinds of musical instruments made of iron, wood or bamboo, such as ( ketambung or drum, tote or serupai, kalali or long flute), guruding or Ketong, garantong (large gong), kangkanong (small gong), gandang mara (short drum), ketambung (small drum), sarunai, Kacapi (lute), gariding, bahalang flute, flute and kangkanong balawang Humbang. Language Riwut (1958) based on the results of investigations into the languages ​​spoken by Dayaks in Kalimantan Dayak in West Kalimantan, East, North and South almost all of them understand the language or Dohoi Ot-Danum, while the Dayaks of Central Kalimantan and South as the intermediary language is generally Ngaju Dayak language is also called the Kapuas language. Each of the Dayak tribe in Borneo have their own local language with different dialects of one another, for example the language Ot-Danum mostly wear the letter "o" and "a" but a lot of wear Ngajuk Dayak language "e" and "a". As an illustration presented in several languages ​​from several Dayak Dayak tribe in Kalimantan. Form Counts Dayak Figures In Several Languages
Indonesian Bajau Bahau Ngaju Ot-Sand Maanyan Lepo Danum vain
1 Ije Je Sa Isa Ico Erai Ca 2 Due Two Two Two Doo Doeo Rueh 3 Telo Telo Telo Tee Toro Toloe Telu 4 Epat Epat Four Opat Opat Epat Pat 5 Lime Lime Lime Limo Rimo Dime ENTRY 6 Jahawen Six Six Enem Enem Unom Onom 7 Uju Go Pito Pitu Pitu Seven Turu 8 Only I Walu Waru Walu Walu 'Ay'ah 9 Jalatien Pitan Sanga Sioi Sie Scriptures Pien 10 Ten Ten Poro Sapulu Pulu Pulu 'Pulu

Source: Riwut, (1958)
Based on illustrations in a matter of numbers described by Riwut is just a fraction of the sample language Dayaks in Kalimantan. From this illustration it can be understood that although they were from one family of the same tribe of the Dayaks, but in reality there are many differences in terms of both dialect and in the sense of the word as in the following example: Dialect differences and the meaning of words in several languages ​​Dayak Language Indonersia Dayak Languages Language Ngajuk Ot-Danum Dayak Dayak language Maanyan 1 2 3 4 God Stomach Rice Mr. Eat Ill Head Dead Life One Come Black Red Women Male Drug Pole Chicken Pig Dog Cascade Hot Drink Angry Love Day Grandma's boy Granny women Boat Oar Floor Wound Arrogant Pants Ear Dive Coconut Rice Shame Ape Hatalla boar Kanai Behas Apang / Father Germ Pehe Takolok Matei Not yet Jela Dumah Babilem Bahandang Bawi Hatue Tatamba Jihi Manok Bawoi Aso Cascade Balasut Mihop Sangit Sinta Sawe Blooming Tambi Arut Besei Laseh Bahimang Balecak Sarawar Pinding Maneser Enyoh Nautical Mahamen Bakei Bawoi Pohotara Botoi Bojah Amai Notch Axis Kuhung Matoi Borum Jora Rombut Mitom Manganese Bawi Bakang Alum Johi Manuk Bawui (urak) Asu Kiham (gobong) Barasut Ngorih Basingi Confiscation Aruh Wounded Wounded Arut Bahosoi Saoh Baringin Taringa Horsewhip Taringa Nosot Onyuh Nautical Mia Bakai Bawoi Alatala Wantung Weah Handicraft Germ Mahanang Ulu Matei Welum Caprice Hawi ' Maintem Mariang Wawei UPU Tatamba Ari ' Manu Wawui Antahu Cascade Malaing Ngu'ut Sangit Confiscation Darangan Kakah Itak Jukung Oar Floor Batan Sakah Salawar Silu ' Iselem Niui Nahi Amangan Warik Pig
Source: Riwut, (1958)
Dayak Cultural Characteristics The division of ethnic groups in Kalimantan Dayak customary law based on equality, language, rites of death, river channels, as well as other criteria, proving the existence of natural diversity and natural differences from the original natives of this island (Widjono, 1998). According Widjono (1998) have characteristics that are typical of the show cultural similarities among all the Dayak tribe in Borneo that changes are the only local terms. Riwut (1958) and Measure (1991 in Widjono 1998) based on its findings said that the principal feature of Dayak culture include: (1) length of the house, (2) typical weapon, (3) wicker; (4) pottery, (5) siastem fields (6) the position of women in society; (7) art of dance. Dayak cultural characteristics, as proposed by Measure in detail can be described as follows:
Long house. Longhouse which is a series that continued residence has been known all ethnic Dayak, Dayak Punan tribe except the wandering life, at first dwelt in the togetherness of living communally in longhouses, which is commonly called Laou, Lamin, betang, and Lewu Hante. Perceptions about the Dayak tribe longhouse covered in at least four important aspects of the longhouse itself ie residential aspects, legal and judicial aspects, economic aspects, and aspects of protection and security. No exaggeration of Dayak longhouse for a "center for Dayak creation, art and inspiration." Moreover, the long house is a concrete manifestation of social solidarity of Dayak culture in the past, even by Kite and Kanyan (1994) that the longhouse is a Dayak cultural center, because almost all of their activities take place there.
Special Weapons Typical weapon which is owned Dayak tribe in Borneo that are not owned by any other tribe is saber and chopsticks. Typical weapon called a saber made of sheet iron that was forged long-like machetes berbetuk flat pointy beak that resembles a grooved upper flat. On hand at the grindstone sharp eye was the top a little thick and blunt. Most upstream saber made of deer antlers carved in the shape of bird heads with various motifs such as dragon head, beak, twisted and hooks. Saber scabbard is made from thin wooden plates, the top coated with bone-shaped ring, the bottom of the wound with a woven rattan. Similarly, the typical weapon called the chopsticks are the type of weapon that it is filled with inflatable damak made of bamboo which diraut small and sharp edges are wood corks as the balance of the bullet chopsticks. Distance strength brass chopsticks usually reach 30-50 feet. Chopsticks made of hard wood sticks resembling elliptical which also is the shaft with a hole at the barrel of a translucent kelilingking finger from tip to tip. At the end of the chopsticks is equipped with eyes made of iron spear-shaped flat pointy toes that stick tied with loops of rattan. In addition to these two types of weapons were still there a device called telabang or shield. This shield is made of cork wood with elongated hexagon shape, the whole field before him a variety of decorative masks (hudoq), flame and twisted double.
Wicker Traditional crafts from the Dayak of wicker which is made of rattan raw material, contained in all Dayak tribes with various versions. There are things that look distinctive in two forms namely woven mats with various kinds of ornamental motifs and a type of basket commonly known anjat strappy, Kiang, framed and so forth.
Earthenware Pottery is said he came from China, such as vessels, jars, pots, plates and bowls since thousands of years ago is part of the tradition lives Dayak tribe in Kalimantan. Even most of the goods, mainly jars and jars not only has economic value, but also socio-religious values ​​that functioned as a mahr (dowry) and the means of various traditional ceremonies, as well as to store the bones of ancestors as well as a symbol of social status .
Shifting Shifting is done by rotating or rotating, is typical of all ethnic Dayak culture. Such shifting has its own wisdom and knowledge, in terms of maintenance of environmental balance. However, such shifting is often manipulated, accused of non-productive and damaging forests. A verdict which must be straightened because many studies have proven one of them was a study conducted by Dove (1988) on interest Kantu in West Kalimantan Dayak tribe stating shifting does not cause damage to forests or the environment.
Status of Women in Society Geneologis system in Dayak society is parental, that lineage is considered the same father and mother. This is different from the patrilineal system (atauy male paternal line) or matrilineal system (mother or female lineage). In the Dayak community structure, in khakikatnya women have an equal footing with men in both social life and religious life. This was evident in the role of women in various traditional ceremonies.
Dance In the Dayak community, the dance is always performed in the context of ritual and serimonial. But there are also dances that are in the public interest. Dance of Dayak in essence a celebration of life. Variety Dayak dance show distinctive identity of the Dayak tribe. Characteristics or traits fundamental Dayak culture as suggested by Measure, according to Arman (1994) more and more weakened. Length of the existing house is getting old and extinct, while new houses diperkampungan Dayak people have shaped the individual home. Saber and chopsticks are increasingly rare because it was purchased by foreign tourists and domestic tourists country. Saber is not as beautiful new homemade homemade saber first. Sumpitpun suffer the same fate with the saber, which live only one or two. Pottery was brought to Borneo by the Chinese merchants in exchange of products with the indigenous population, now they prefer to bring containers from corrugated iron or plastic, because it is lighter to be brought, and the Dayak themselves have no objection to accept it. Meanwhile, the Dayak swidden systems have also begun to change, because the forest to cut down and burned also getting narrower. Shifting a first now declining productivity is still sustainable, due to shorter fallow periods and other requirements that can not be filled again. Likewise, the art of traditional dance anywhere, is no exception Dayak art, is undergoing a change because the present generation many do not like anymore, while the older generation as heir so many have died. Based on the characteristics or traits fundamental Dayak culture, as has been stated by those who by Arman Measure existence is getting more and more weakened, at least to give a picture that the Dayak, although among them there are many sub-sub-tribes, each has a different, but still have the same cultural elements. Meanwhile, based on research results and Layang Muslim (1994) against the Dayaks in West Kalimantan found that among the Dayak are many similarities in culture and art in particular: 1. Dance: (1) the Kayan, Punan, Bukat and Oheng (Peneheng) has a musical instrument sape 'and dance as well as motifs that are very similar fashion, (2) the Iban, Sleep, Muwalang, Seberuang, Tabun in the village Ketungai Lebang Kapuas, Lino people in Melawi and Bugao, in beating a gong, tawak, drums, engkerumong (small gamelan), and then they dance, it would seem that the sound of instruments, dance styles, and fashion motifs they have in common, (3) persons Banuaka 'Park in Banua 'Sio, Mandalam, Kapuas with Banuaka' dull, Paniung, Sabintang, and in Alau, Apalin, Nanga Nyabo, Sunge Ulo, and in Tamambalo, Tamao and Labiyan in beating gongs, tawak, pride / bobondi and kakalentang / tatabo (small gamelan ), then in the dance style and fashion motifs they are impressed there is a similarity, (4) persons Jangkang, Ribun, Pandu, Pompang Meliau Village, and the Institute for Stem Cutting Tarang same in beating gongs, tawak, dance styles and motifs of clothing, (5 ) people Keriu, Jeka, Biak curved, and Simpang in Ketapang have hit a gong musical instrument in exactly the same each other, and thus also have the exact same dance movement with one another, (6) persons in manyuke Kanayatn and Lara, and Jagoi the sounds of traditional musical instruments such as gongs, tawak (DAU) and then they danced impressed that sounds good for modern or dance style they have in common; (7) Ketapang Dayak tribes who live in the south of the river Pawan had musical instruments similar, as are the sound of the beat and dance movement. 2. Traditional Clothing: (1) group Dayak Kayan, Iban and Banuaka 'for men's clothes have in common is a loincloth (mesh, kainampura), vest (gagung) and cap (Kambu), (2) group Ud-Danum, Kaninjal, Undau, Kubin has a similarity in clothing and weapons of war / hunting as well as some household appliances. 3. Carvings: (1) Dayak Banuaka 'impression of the similarities with the Kayan and Iban in the form of decorative although on the Kayan kelompon more prominent motifs or fern root, the more prominent Iban leaf motif and Banuaka' is a combination of motifs or fern root and leaves, (2) Ut-Danum Dayak, Kaninjal, Undau, Kubin, Randu impressed there are similarities in the various motif carvings, (3) carved Dayak Jangkang, Ribun, many similarities with Mahap, Mentuka, Relatives Bedayuh Manyuke, Kanayant, Lara , Jagoi, bakati ', Dayak tribe Kayung barley and Siring (Simpang), (4) Engraving Kanayant much in common with Lara and Bakati Manyuke' and Kayung Barley in Ketapang. 4. Language, linguistic similarities are very clear on: (1) with the Punan and Dayak Kayan Bukat, (2) Dayak Banuaka 'in Banua Sio, Mandalam, Kapuas with dull, and Paniung, Sebintang, Alau, Apalin Nyabo, Nanga Nyabo, Sunge Ulo with Dayak Park, Balo, Tamao and Labiyan; (3) Dayak Suruk with Mamayan and Suhaid; (4) Dayak Iban with Sleep, Seberuang, Muwalang, Ketungau, Sebaruk and Village, (5) Dayak Kaninjal with Undau, kubin, and Linau; (6) Dayak Jangkang with Ribun, Pandu, Mahap, Mantuka, relatives, and Simpang Pompang; (7) Dayak Banyuke, Kanayant, Bakati, Lara and Jagoi; (8) Dayak Barley with Kendawangan, Pasaguan, Kayung in Ketapang. The existence of common cultural elements that are owned by the Dayaks in Borneo, according to Muslim and Kite (1994), this is because since the granddaddy of them are tied up in traditional society (adattrecht gemeenschap) as an indigenous fellowship, also at first they are one kekarabatan formed by geneologis, both paternal and maternal sides, then evolved into a fellowship of customary law which is geneologis territorial and even partly because of attachment to their territorial nature in a region called the continent (Kalbar), Lewu (Katingan Central Kalimantan), leppo (Kenyah Central Kalimantan) and Benuag (Kaltim). 






CLOSING Dayak tribe as other tribes, have customs and customary law of its own. The provisions of which is a way of life for its citizens, there is that contains sanctions, and some are not. That does not contain contain sanctions are habits or customs, but that would violate scorned, because the customs are a reflection of personality and the embodiment of their souls for generations. While containing the sanction is the law which consists of the norms of decency, morals, order up to the norms of belief or confidence associated with the supernatural and the creator. The norms were called customary law. Kekarabatan system on the Dayak in the bilateral or parental. Boys and girls receive equal treatment, as well as in the division of inheritance is basically no difference, that is not always young men gained more than girls, but who still live and maintain their parents to death, then get a share a more even sometimes entirely. Similarly, residence after marriage in the Dayaks are more free to choose and not be bound. Mating system basically adopts a eleotherogami marriage and do not recognize the ban or mandatory, as the system of endogamy or exogamy, except for the closest blood relationships in both the descendants of a straight line upwards or downwards until the seventh degree. Dayak people's livelihoods is always something to do with forests, such as hunting, farming, gardening they go into the forest. Livelihood-oriented forest has lasted for centuries, and in fact influence the culture of the Dayaks. For example longhouse pristine entirely made of wood taken from forests, as well as with small canoes made with simple technology that is the way to dredge the tree trunk, working equipment such as axes, pickaxes, machetes, baskets, mats, saber, shield and chopsticks are all (at least in part) the materials are derived from the forest. Arts such as dance, sound art, sculpture, painting the Dayak is one aspect of the Dayak culture that has a shape and characteristics of each sub tribe Dayak. However, in almost all sub tribe Dayak has the basic characteristics of the same or similar, this indicates that there is a relationship kekarabatan in the past. Forest for the Dayak is a "world" or lives. The position and role of these forests has led to Dayak farmers use forest land around them while growing dn commitment to maintain the sustainability of life for the sake of the existence and continuation of the forest itself, their lives as individuals and groups, and also for the sake of their good relations with nature and their God. To carry out the duties and commitment, the Dayak community equipped with the mechanism of natural and cultural values ​​that support, the use of forests for their survival and conservation.
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