Minggu, 02 Januari 2011

The Dayak

The Dayak are the indigenous tribes of Borneo who live in groups living in rural, mountain, and so forth. Dayak said it was actually given by the Malay people who come to Borneo. Dayak people actually objected Dayak name, because more defined rather negative. In fact, the Dayaks motto is "Menteng Ueh mammoth", which means someone who has the power of courageous, and do not know surrender or persist.
OriginIn the year (1977-1978) at the time, the continents of Asia and the island of Borneo, which is part of the archipelago are still together, which allows the Mongoloid race from asia to wander through the mainland and arrived in Borneo to cross the mountains now called the mountains "Muller-Schwaner '. Dayak tribe of Borneo is the true population. But after the Malays from Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula came, they increasingly retreat into.


Not to mention the arrival of the Bugis, Makasar, and the Javanese Majapahit Empire in the heyday. Dayak tribes living scattered throughout the region of the long span of time, they have spread through the rivers down to the downstream and then inhabit the coast of the island of Borneo. This tribe is composed of several tribes, each of which has different properties and behavior.
Dayak tribe had to build an empire. In the Dayak oral tradition, often called "Java Nansarunai U┼čak", ie, a kingdom which was destroyed by the Dayak Nansarunai Majapahit, which is estimated to occur between the years 1309-1389 (Fridolin Ukur, 1971). These events resulted in recessive Dayak tribes and dispersed, some into the countryside. The next big flows occur at the time of Islamic influence from the kingdom of Demak berasala with the influx of Malay traders (circa 1608).


Most of the Dayak tribe embraced Islam and no longer recognize him as the Dayak, but calls himself a Malay or Banjar. While the Dayak people who reject Islam back down the river, into the hinterland of Central Kalimantan, have settled in areas of Tangi Wood, Amuntai, Margasari, Watang Amanda, Lawas and Labuan Watang Balangan. Sebagain longer continue to push into the jungle. Muslim Dayaks are mostly located in South Kalimantan and some Kotawaringin, one of the famous Sultan of the Sultanate of Banjar is Gastric Mangkurat was actually a Dayak (Ma'anyan or Ot Danum)
Not only from the country, other nations also came to Borneo. Chinese nation is expected to start coming to Borneo during the Ming Dynasty in 1368-1643. From the manuscript lettered in kanji mentioned that the city's first visit is Banjarmasin. But it remains unclear whether the Chinese people came to the era Bajarmasin (under Majapahit hegemony) or in the Islamic era.
The arrival of the Chinese nation does not result in displacement Dayak population and has no direct effect because it directly because they only trade, especially with the kingdom of Banjar in Banjarmasin. They do not trade directly with the Dayaks. Chinese relics are still kept by some Dayak tribes like malawen dishes, pots (jars) and ceramic equipment.
Since the beginning of the fifth century the Chinese people have arrived in Borneo. In the XV century, King Yung Lo sent a large army to the south (including the Archipelago) under the leadership of Ho Chang, and returned to China in 1407, having previously stopped to Java, Borneo, Malacca, Manila and Solok. In 1750, Sultan Mempawah accept Chinese people (from Brunei) who is looking for gold. Chinese people are also carrying merchandise such as opium, silk, glassware such as plates, cups, bowls and jars (Sarwoto kertodipoero, 1963)
Here are some customs and traditions for tribal Dayak are still preserved up to now, and the supernatural world Dayak tribes in ancient times and today is still strong to this day. This tradition is one of the cultural wealth owned by the Indonesian nation, because in the first Dayak tribes from Kalimantan hinterland.
Ceremony tiwahThe ceremony is an event tiwah indigenous Dayak tribes. Tiwah a ceremony held for delivery of the dead bone to have stumbled on the make. Is a kind of stumbled a little house that was made specifically for those who had died.


Tiwah ceremony for the Dayak are very sacred, in the event this tiwah before the bones of the dead are in between and put into place (stumbled), numerous occasions of ritual, dance, sound gongs and other entertainment. Until the bones are in place in place (stumbled).






Supernatural WorldSupernatural world for the Dayak had been since ancient times is a hallmark of Dayak culture. Because of this supernatural abroad there are those called Dayak as man-eaters (cannibals). But in fact the Dayak is a very peace-loving tribe of origin they are not disturbed and suppressed arbitrarily. Borneo Dayak supernatural powers of many kinds, for example Manajah Antang. Manajah Antang is a great way to search for clues Dayak tribes such as the existence of an enemy that is difficult to find in the find of the spirits of the ancestors of birds Antang with the media, wherever the enemy that in the search will be found.
Red bowl. Red represents unity medium bowl Dayak tribes. Circulating red bowl if Dayak people feel their sovereignty in great danger. "Commander" or often referred Pangkalima Dayak tribe usually issued standby signal or a war in the form of a red bowl that get circulated from village to village very quickly. From the appearance of the daily lot of people do not know who the commander of the Dayak. He was mediocre, it's just that he has extraordinary psychic powers. Believe it or not it has knowledge commander can fly immune from anything like bullets, sharp weapons and so forth.
Red bowls do not haphazardly circulated. Before circulated the commander must make a custom event to know when the right time to start a war. In a traditional ceremony that the spirits of the ancestors will permeate the body and if pangkalima pangkalima the air "Tariu" (call the ancestral spirits for assistance and to declare war), the Dayak people who hear it will also have the power as commander. Usually people who get sick soul unstable or crazy when they hear tariu.
People who already possessed by the spirits of the ancestors will be human and not. So usually the blood, liver victims who were killed will be eaten. If not in an atmosphere of war is never the Dayak people eat human. Head decapitated, skinned and be saved for ceremonial purposes. Drink blood and eat the liver, then magical power will increase. The more enemies killed then the person is more powerful.
Red bowl made of bamboo porch (some say made of clay) which are designed in circular shape made soon. To accompany the bowls are provided also other equipment such as sweet red jerangau (acorus Calamus), which symbolizes the courage (some say could be replaced with yellow rice), red chicken feathers to fly, light torches on bamboo torches (some say could be replaced by a matches), sago palm leaves (Metroxylon sagus) for shelter and leather rope knot of kepuak as a symbol of unity. Supplies were packed in the bowl of bamboo wrapped with red cloth.
According to stories passed down through generations of red bowl first against Japan in circulation when the war first. Then happen again when the expulsion of Chinese from the Dayak areas in 1967. Dayak expulsion of Chinese people instead of inter-ethnic war but more political content. Because at that time Indonesia was a confrontation with Malaysia.
According to Dayak beliefs, especially those dipedalaman Kalimantan, which passed from mouth to mouth, from grandmother to father, from father to son, until now that is not written resulting in a more or less than that in truth, that the origins of Dayak ancestors was derived from the seventh heaven into this world with "Palangka Bulau" (Palangka means holy, clean, a shelf, as the stretcher is holy, holy axle of gold down from the sky, often also referred to "rack or Kalangkang").

 


Posted by putu pikacu jubeng at 07:39http://mengkatip.blogspot.com/
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